Topic 6: Measurement and evaluation of human performance Flashcards Preview

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Standard deviation

Standard deviation is used to summarize the spread of values around the mean, and that within a normal distribution approximately 68% and 95% fall within + or - 1 or 2 standard deviation points respectively.


Explain how the standard deviation is useful for comparing the means and the spread of data between two or more samples

A small standard deviation indicates that the data is clustered closely around the mean value.
Conversely, a large standard deviation indicates wider spread around the mean.


outline the meaning of coefficient variation

Coefficient variation is the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean expressed as a percentage.


Deduce the significance of the difference between two sets of data using calculated values for t and the appropriate tables

For the t-test too be applied =, ideally the data should have a normal distribution and a sample size of at least 10. The t-test can be used to compare two sets of data and measure the amount of overlap


Outline the importance of the PAR-Q

Assesses the readiness for an individual to partake in a general training program


Components of fitness:
Health related

body composition (endomorph, ectomorph, mesomoprh - percentage of the body that is fat, muscle, or bone_
cardio-respiratory fitness (aerobic capacity)
flexibility (range of movement possible at a joint)
muscular endurance (the ability for your muscles to be used for long periods of time)
strength (the ability for your muscles to exert large amounts of force)
Used in every day life, needed to survive.


Components of fitness:
Skill related

reaction time
Specialized components, needed more during sport events.

Some components of performance-related fitness could become health-related for certain group such as the elderly suffering from hypo-kinetic diseases.


Distinguish between the concepts of health-related fitness and performance-related fitness

The components that make up health-related fitness are: muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition and cardiovascular endurance. The components forming performance-related fitness are: speed, power, agility, balance, reaction time, and coordination.

The concept of HRF is that each of the components are required to a certain extent for day to day activity. You would need cardiovascular endurance to make the walk up the stairs to get to work for example. The focus of HRF is to improve the overall health of an individual.

Although the components of HRF are also requires in sport, the way in which HRF and PRF differ are that the components of PRF are required for specific sports. Not all the sports need all the PRF components. Whereas a sprinters main component would be speed and not agility, a tennis player would require much more agility and less speed than the sprinter. Components of PRF, unlike HRF are not needed in day to day life, yet HRF is beneficial to all sports. In some specialized cases, PRF can be determined a HRF, like in the case of the elderly where balance and coordination may be required to lead a healthy life and contribute to the general wellbeing of the human.


Aerobic capacity

The ability to take in, deliver and use oxygen for use by the aerobic or oxidative energy system
It is most commonly characterised by an individual’s maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max), which is the maximal rate that oxygen can be used during maximal exercise
Underpinned by the limits of the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems to extract oxygen from the atmosphere, deliver it to respiring tissues and use it
Low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with many diseased states and epidemiological research has shown an association with a shorter lifespan
Conditions where cardiovascular or ventilatory function is impaired (heart disease, chronic lung disease) fitness is reduced
Low intensities of physical activity can be tolerated before anaerobic energy systems need to be relied on
High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are observed in endurance trained athletes
Enabling them to tolerate much higher intensities and durations of physical activity



The ability to move through the full range of movement around a joint
Flexibility is underpinned by a range of condition:
The capacity of the muscles and tendons to stretch
Ligament condition
Joint mechanics
Size and shapes of bones


Muscular endurance

The ability of a muscle or muscle group to maintain force or power
The underpinning physiology is a complex interaction of a number of factors and their relative importance depends on the relative intensity of muscular contractions
Mostly related to the availability of substrates, enzyme activity and build-up of metabolites



The ability to rapidly change direction or speed
This may or may not be in response to stimulus
It can be separated into the physical ability to change direction or speed



The ability to generate force by a muscle or muscle group
Strength is underpinned by the muscle mass that is available (volume and muscle fibre-type), the ability to activate that muscle mass and the coordination of this muscle activity
Dependent on both the neural and muscular systems and their successful interaction



The ability to change the distance with respect to time when movement occurs
This could refer to whole-body speed or of a particular joint or muscle group
Depending on the context in sport and exercise
In many sporting competitions the time that it takes to complete a given activity is what determine the outcome
Explosive sporting activities such as jumping and throwing rely on speed of movement


Body composition

Relates to the proportion of an individual’s total body mass that is made up of fat and fat-free mass
What makes up the total body mass is important
Body fat mass (FM) includes essential fat found in the tissues, organs and stored fat
Energy Reserve
Fat-free mass (FFM) refers to what makes up the rest of the body
Muscle, water and bone
High levels of body fat are associated with many pathological disorders and so maintenance of low body fat mass is important for health-related physical fitness
Fat mass that is too low
Muscle mass that is too low
Most sporting activities, body fat is kept low
Sumo wrestling being an extreme opposite
In collision sports, FFM is kept high
American football
FFM is kept low
In weight restricted sports
Aesthetic sports
Bone density is another important aspect of body composition
A low bone density underpins osteoporosis
Exercise can play an important role in maintaining bone density



The stability of the body
To maintain balance the center of gravity needs to be maintained above the supporting base of the body and this is achieved through coordinated contraction and relaxation of postural muscles in response to positional changes
Postural changes are detected by visual, vestibular and proprioceptive processes and this stimulates the coordinated muscular responses in order to maintain balance
Successful balance depends on the ability to sense position and respond to the sensory information in a coordinated fashion, with integration of neuromuscular systems



The ability to integrate the above listed components so that effective movements are achieved.


Reaction time

The duration between the presentation of a stimulus and the associated response
Depends on the integration of neuromuscular systems
The reaction time reflects the combination
Detecting sensory information
Processing this information
Sending a response
Effecting this response
The reaction time is very dependent on the interaction of the stimulus type and the environment
There may be single stimulus and single response in the simplest tasks, compared to highly complex tasks with multiple stimuli and multiple responses with distracting information



Represents the combination of force (strength) and velocity (speed)
Has the same unpinned by the same factors as strength and speed
Importance depends on the activity
High forces required emphasises on strength
Lower forces emphasises on speed
Muscular power is often seen as one of the most important determinants of sporting performance



The test requires participants to perform repeated 20-meter shuttles at progressively increasing speeds
Until exhaustion is reached
The running speed is indicated by the audio-sound (the “beep”) that indicates that the next shuttle should start with a sound
The first level of the test is of low intensity
Fast walk or light jog
Approximately each minute the frequency of the sounds increases
Causing an increase in running speed for that level
Performance in the test is described as the level reached
The number of completed shuttles in that level reached
If the participant stops or fails to keep pace with the sound, they would be disqualified from continuing

The score is then compared against a reference table where an estimated of VO₂max can be obtained based on the number of shuttles
An increased score correspond to a higher VO₂max


Advantages of MSFT

Limited expertise and equipment needed
Maximal test with continuous exercise


Advantages of MSFT

Limited expertise and equipment needed
Maximal test with continuous exercise
Easy to score
Large numbers can be tested at once in a short time


Limitations of MSFT

Prediction based on performance and not direct measurement
Maximal test
Ethical considerations
Importance of motivation
Environmental factors influence performance as not in a laboratory
Score is known by participants and previous scores or targets score may impact on performance


Cooper's 12-minute run

The test requires participants to run/walk as far as they can in a period of 12 minutes
The total distance then entered into an equation to estimate VO₂max


Advantages of Cooper run

Limited expertise and equipment needed
Easy to score
Large numbers can be tested at once in a short time


Limitations of Cooper run

Prediction based on performance and not direct measurement
Maximal test
Ethical considerations
Importance of motivation
Environmental factors influence performance as not in a laboratory
The protocol is not progressive in nature and therefore pacing will be a key factors


Harvard step test

The outcome measure for this test is not performance, but based on the recovery of heart rate after performing a fixed amount of work
Performers are required to step on and off a step (45cm High) at a rate of 30 steps each minute for 5 minutes
Making a total of 150 steps
The heart rate of the participant is then measured at the end of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd minutes of recovery following completion of the test
An equation is then uses the total of these 3 heart rate values to estimate VO₂max based on the association of a lower heart rate (and faster recovery) at a fixed intensity with higher VO₂max


Advantages of Harvard step test

Limited to expertise and equipment needed
The test is based on physiological findings and not performance-Pacing and motivation will not affect the results


Disadvantages of Harvard step test

Prediction based on heart rate values
Does not account for individual variation in heart rate
Heart rate needs to be measured accurately
Small differences will impact on the result


Sit and reach

Sit on the floor with both legs straight out in front of you. Place a box at your feet (touching the soles of your feet) with a ruler attached to the top of it. Reach as far as you can along the ruler, keeping your legs straight
minimal equipment
can be conducted anywhere
-specialised equipment needed
-assistance required