Topic 3- Ethnic Differences in Achievement Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 3- Ethnic Differences in Achievement Deck (55)
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1

how can ethnic differences in achievement be outlined?

Through the home, family and the impact of wider society

2

what do cultural deprivation theorists argue?

That many children from low income black families lack intellectual stimulation. this leaves them poorly equipped for school as they have poor reasoning skills

3

Berieter and Englemann

Language used in low income black homes are inadequate for educational success

4

Gillborn and Mirza

Indian pupils achieve well even though English is not their first language

5

attitudes and values

lack of motivation is the cause of underachievement for black students
-black children are socialised into a fatalistic attitude
this leaves them unequipped for educational success

6

what is the mainstream culture

it instils ambition, competitiveness and willingness to make the necessary sacrifices to achieve long term goals

7

what does Moynihan argue

many black families are headed by a lone mother , who trys to replace the male breadwinner , the children are deprived of adequate care

8

moynihan sees...

cultural deprivation as a cycle where inadequately socialised children go to school and fail, then become inadequate parents themselves

9

Murray

high rate of lone parenthood and lack of positive male role models leads to the underachievement of some minorities

10

Pryce - Caribbeans

black Caribbean culture is less cohesive and less resistant to racism , therefore black Caribbean students underachieve

11

Sewell, underachievement

there is a lack of fatherly nurturing or 'topugh love'
- this results in black boys finding it difficult to overcome emotional and behavioural difficulties as they age

12

what is selling out to the white establishment?

(for black boys)
- being academically successful , speaking in standard English

13

Labelling

attach a meaning of definition to a person.
E.g.teachers might label a student as bright, thick, troublemaker or hardworking

14

Dunne and Gazely

schools persistently produce working class underachievement , teachers normalised the underachievement of wc pupils and believed that they could overcome the underachievement of mc
e.g.: teachers put wc for easier exams and mc for extension work.

15

Rays Rist

Study of an American kindergarten shows that teachers used information from a pupils home background to place them in separate groups
e.g.: tigers, clowns and cardinals

16

outline the self fulfilling prophecy

Step 1 : Teacher labels a pupil
Step 2: Teacher treats the pupil accordingly
Step 3 : Pupil internalises the teachers expectation, this becomes apart of their self image

17

Who did a study on the self fulfilling prophecy?
Ann Oakley or Rosenthal and Jacobson

Rosenthal and Jacobson

18

What is streaming?

streaming involves putting children into different ability groups

19

Who benefits from streaming, MC or WC?
why?

The middle class benefit from streaming as the schools habitus is middle class.
Becker shows us that teachers do not usually see WC as ideal pupils , therefore, they have low expectations of them

20

Streaming and the A-C economy

Gillborn and Youdell - show how teachers use stereotypical notions of ability to

21

what are the patterns of ethnic achievement within groups?

Black and Pakistani students do worst, Chinese and Indian do best
- whie pupils are very close to the national average , because they form the majority of the school population

22

what are rthe main external factors effecting ethnic differences in achievement

cultural deprivation, material deprivation and class and racism in wider society

23

cultural deprivation theory

cultural deprivation theory claims the children from low income black families lack intellectual stimulation , as a result, they develop reasoning and problem solving skills
Swann report - language is not a major factor in under achievement. Indian children do well, while they do not speak English at home.

24

Berieter and Englemann
(black families)

claim that the language of poor black American families is ungrammatical and disjointed

25

Sewell- Asian work ethic

Chinese and Indian pupils benefit from supportive families with an 'Asian work ethic'

26

Sewell (black families)

the lack of fatherly nurturing leads to the underachievement of black boys
Street gangs offer loyalty and love

27

white working class pupils

also underachieve- maybe because of low aspirations , being a result of white working class culture
* refer to Lupton and evans

28

Lupton -poor levels of behaviour

teachers reported poor levels of behaviour in white pupils , which they linked to the lack of parental support and the negative views that white working class parents had towards education

29

Evans -street culture

street culture in white working class areas can be brutal and brought into school

30

compensatory education

- an educational policy that aims to reduce cultural deprivation - through access to extra resources