Flashcards in Topic 3- Ethnic Differences in Achievement Deck (55)
how can ethnic differences in achievement be outlined?
Through the home, family and the impact of wider society
what do cultural deprivation theorists argue?
That many children from low income black families lack intellectual stimulation. this leaves them poorly equipped for school as they have poor reasoning skills
Berieter and Englemann
Language used in low income black homes are inadequate for educational success
Gillborn and Mirza
Indian pupils achieve well even though English is not their first language
attitudes and values
lack of motivation is the cause of underachievement for black students
-black children are socialised into a fatalistic attitude
this leaves them unequipped for educational success
what is the mainstream culture
it instils ambition, competitiveness and willingness to make the necessary sacrifices to achieve long term goals
what does Moynihan argue
many black families are headed by a lone mother , who trys to replace the male breadwinner , the children are deprived of adequate care
cultural deprivation as a cycle where inadequately socialised children go to school and fail, then become inadequate parents themselves
high rate of lone parenthood and lack of positive male role models leads to the underachievement of some minorities
Pryce - Caribbeans
black Caribbean culture is less cohesive and less resistant to racism , therefore black Caribbean students underachieve
there is a lack of fatherly nurturing or 'topugh love'
- this results in black boys finding it difficult to overcome emotional and behavioural difficulties as they age
what is selling out to the white establishment?
(for black boys)
- being academically successful , speaking in standard English
attach a meaning of definition to a person.
E.g.teachers might label a student as bright, thick, troublemaker or hardworking
Dunne and Gazely
schools persistently produce working class underachievement , teachers normalised the underachievement of wc pupils and believed that they could overcome the underachievement of mc
e.g.: teachers put wc for easier exams and mc for extension work.
Study of an American kindergarten shows that teachers used information from a pupils home background to place them in separate groups
e.g.: tigers, clowns and cardinals
outline the self fulfilling prophecy
Step 1 : Teacher labels a pupil
Step 2: Teacher treats the pupil accordingly
Step 3 : Pupil internalises the teachers expectation, this becomes apart of their self image
Who did a study on the self fulfilling prophecy?
Ann Oakley or Rosenthal and Jacobson
Rosenthal and Jacobson
What is streaming?
streaming involves putting children into different ability groups
Who benefits from streaming, MC or WC?
The middle class benefit from streaming as the schools habitus is middle class.
Becker shows us that teachers do not usually see WC as ideal pupils , therefore, they have low expectations of them
Streaming and the A-C economy
Gillborn and Youdell - show how teachers use stereotypical notions of ability to
what are the patterns of ethnic achievement within groups?
Black and Pakistani students do worst, Chinese and Indian do best
- whie pupils are very close to the national average , because they form the majority of the school population
what are rthe main external factors effecting ethnic differences in achievement
cultural deprivation, material deprivation and class and racism in wider society
cultural deprivation theory
cultural deprivation theory claims the children from low income black families lack intellectual stimulation , as a result, they develop reasoning and problem solving skills
Swann report - language is not a major factor in under achievement. Indian children do well, while they do not speak English at home.
Berieter and Englemann
claim that the language of poor black American families is ungrammatical and disjointed
Sewell- Asian work ethic
Chinese and Indian pupils benefit from supportive families with an 'Asian work ethic'
Sewell (black families)
the lack of fatherly nurturing leads to the underachievement of black boys
Street gangs offer loyalty and love
white working class pupils
also underachieve- maybe because of low aspirations , being a result of white working class culture
* refer to Lupton and evans
Lupton -poor levels of behaviour
teachers reported poor levels of behaviour in white pupils , which they linked to the lack of parental support and the negative views that white working class parents had towards education
Evans -street culture
street culture in white working class areas can be brutal and brought into school