Topic 4- Gender differences ineducation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 4- Gender differences ineducation Deck (39)
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Gender pattern in achievement- in the past boys out performed girls, since the 1980s, girls have improved rapidly

At GCSE, irls are ahead 10 points


reason for improvements in girls achievement
( external factors)

Influence of feminism
girls changing perceptions and ambitions
changes in the family
changes in women's employment


reasons for changes In girls achievement
( influence of feminism)
Angela McRobbie - study of GIRLS' MAGAZINE

magazines in the 1970's emphasised the importance of getting married and not being left on the shelf , whereas, nowadays, they contain independent women

Feminists have changed patriarchy in all areas of social life and rejected the traditional roles of women in the home, work, education and law
- feminists have had an impact on women's rights through campaigns to win the changes in the law


reasons for the changes in girls achievement
(External factor, changes in the family)

since the 1970s , the changes in the family are :
-an increase in divorce rate
-an increase in cohabitation and a decrease in the number of first marriages
- an increase in the number of lone parent families



reasons for the changes in girls achievement
( external factor, changes in women's employment)

women now have more employment opportunities
The 1970 equal pay act - makes it illegal to pay women less than men
since 1975, the pay gap between men and women have halved from 30% to 15%
as a result , girls have more incentive to see their future in terms of paid work , this also allows them to gain qualifications rather than being housewives


reason for improvements in girls achievement
( internal factors)

equal opportunity policies
positive role models in school
GCSE and coursework
Teacher attention
Challenging stereotypes in the curriculum
selection league tables
and the radical and feminist view on education


reasons for the changes in girls achievement
(internal factor, equal opportunity policies)

national curriculum - 1988- removed one source of gender inequality by making girls and boys study the same subjects

feminists believe that girls and boys are equally capable and should have the same amount of opportunities is accustomed to mainstream thinking.

This can be shown through : GIST ( Girls Into Science and Technology)and Wise ( Women Into Science and Engineering)


reasons for the changes in girls achievement
(Internal factor, Positive role models in School )

there are now more female teachers in schools , they provide a pro educational role model for girls
The prescience of female teachers @ feminises learning', as a result, girls perceive educational success as a desirable female characteristic


reasons for the changes in girls achievement
(Internal factor, GCSE and Coursework)
Mitsios and Browne- Girls are more successful in their coursework because they are more organised than boys
This is shown through:

Girls :
spend more time on their work, take time with presentation
Meet deadlines
Bring equipment and material into lessons

Sociologists argue that these are a result of gender socialisation in the family, girls are taught to be tidy and independent
AO2: Elwood states that exams have more of an influence on final grades , the introduction to coursework has limited effect to gender differences


reasons for the changes in girls achievement
(Internal factor, Teacher attention)
The way that teachers interact with boys differ- boys receive more attention than girls F

Francis- boys received more attention but were disciplined more harshly , teachers picked on them and had lower expectations of them

Swann- Boys dominate in whole class discussions, girls prefer paired work and group work
Girls take turns when speaking, which contrasts to boys. This explains why teachers respond positively to girls and negatively to boys,
which may lead to the self fulfilling prophecy


reasons for the changes in girls achievement
(Internal factor, challenging stereotypes in the curriculum)

there has been removal of stereotypes in textbooks , removing the barrier to girls' achievement
research shows that in the 1970s- 80s, women were shown as housewives and mothers


reasons for the changes in girls achievement
(Internal factor, selection and league tables )

Liberal feminists welcome the progress made by equal opportunities

marketization has lead schools boosting their results in the exam league table position lead to schools recruiting more able students
Girls are more attractive to schools as they are more successful
Boys are low achieving and badly behaved
AO3:Radical feminists argue that the system remains patriarchal , education limits subject choices


reasons for the changes in girls achievement
(Internal factor, successful working class girls )

Evans felt that wc girls may still be disadvantaged. Girls wanted to go to uni and increase their earning power


Identity, Class and Girls' achievement
- hyper sexualised feminine identities
being loud

Hyper sexualised feminine identities- girls earn symbolic capital from their female peers but cause conflict with the schools ( in their appearance)
For example , girls spent £40 a week on appearance , this brought status into their peer group
teachers saw their appearance as a distraction


Identity, Class and Girls' achievement
- Boyfriends

gave girls symbolic capital but got in the way of schoolwork and lowered girls aspirations , these girls settled down and worked locally in working class feminine jobs such as childcare


Identity, Class and Girls' achievement
-Being loud

wc girls achieved ' loud' feminine identities that lead to them being outspoken , independent and assertive.
this lead to them questioning teachers authority
Teachers saw this as aggressive


successful working class girls

- some achieve and go on to higher education
evans found that girls wanted to go to university to increase their earning power , their motivation reflected their gendered identities


boys' underachievement

-boys and literacy
- globalisation and the decline of traditional men's jobs
feminisation of education
shortage of male primary school teachers
;lack of male role models in the home
-laddish subcultures
Policies to raise boys' achievement


boys' underachievement
The national literacy strategy focuses on improving boys' literacy

boys are usually seen as unsuccessful because of their lack of literacy skill
According to the DCF, the gender gap is the result of boys poorer literacy and language skills
parents spend less time reading to their sons , reading is seen as a feminine activity
Boys' leisure activities don't encourage language skills, whereas, girls bedroom culture does.


Boys underachievement
Globalisation and the decline of traditional mens roles

globalisation has lead to the industry relocating ato developing countries
Mitsos and Browne - argue that the decline in male employment has lead to an identity crisis for men
this decline is mainly in wc


Boys underachievement
Feminisation education

Sewell- boys fall behind because education has become feminised
schools show this through celebrating feminine qualities such as methodical working and attentiveness instead of competitiveness and leadership
there is a lack of male primary school teachers , 1 in 6 primary school teachers are men


boys underachievement
shortage of male primary school teachers
there are large numbers of boys being brought up in 1.5 million female-headed lone parent families in the uk

this is because education has become more feminised, female teachers are unable to control the boys' behaviour
in this view, male teachers are able to impose the strict discipline that boys need


boys underachievement
laddish subcultures


there is peer pressure on boys to show themselves as anti school
Epstien-pro school working class boys are more likely to be harassed , labelled as gay and subjected to verbal abuse
AO2 - laddish subcultures are largely working class

as girls move into paid work, boys become more 'laddish' by trying to show themselves as non feminine , this leads to underachievement


Gender and subject choice
in the national curriculum, subjects are compulsory, but where choice is possible, boys choose differently to girls, with them picking design and technology in comparison to girls who may pick English literature and art

gender subject choices are more noticeable in a level,with boys picking maths and physics and girls picking subjects such as sociology
this allows us to question the usefulness of wise and gist


what factors explain the reason for gender differences in subject choice

- early socialisation
- gendered subject images
- gender identity
-gendered career opportunities


gender differences in subject choice
( early socialisation)

Bryne- teachers encourage boys to be tough and show initiative.Girls are taught to be clean and tidy

this relates to the behaviour expected in males and females
in the family, boys and girls are dressed differently, parents choose different toys for them

boys read hobby books and and information texts while girls read stories about people


gender differences in subject choice
( gender domains )

are tasks that are marked as male or female territory , these aree shaped by childrens experiences and the expectations of adults
Murphy - boys and girls pay attention to different things.Boys pay attention to how things are made and work while girls pay attention to how people feel


gender differences in subject choice
( gendered subject images)

eg : science is mainly taught by men and textbooks traditionally use boys' interests, as a resuly, science is seen as a more masculine subject
- in science lessons, boys use the equipment as 'theirs'


gender differences in subject choice
( gender identity and peer pressure)

Study of an American college found that boys would call girls as lesbian or butch if they appeared to be interested in a sport

boys tend to turn away from music and dance because such activities fall out of the gender domain , and so they are likely to get a negative response from their peers.


gender differences In subject choice
(Gendered Careers)

many jobs aere seen a ' men or womans'eg nursing and plumbing
vocational courced may also be 'gender heavy'
Fuller shows us that working class girled wanted to go into hair and beauty . this reflected their working class habitus , their expectation for people like us.