Topic 5 -The Role Of Education in Society Flashcards Preview

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1

the functionalist perspective on education

is a consensus view that argues that society is harmonious , to survive, society needs solidarity through everyone sharing the same values and norms . Otherwise, society would disintegrate
functionalists question if things help to conform to societies needs

2

Durkheim- solidarity and skills
Education performs two functions,outline one of them ( social solidarity

It promotes social solidarity: by transmitting societies shared culture. Its individuals must feel themselves as a single community
the education system creates social solidarity by binding people together and teaching them how to co operate , they show students that they share the same past ,
EDUCATION TEACHES CHILDREN UNIVERSALISTIC RULES THAT ARE NEEDED FOR SOCIETY TO CONFORM

3

Parsons : Socialisation and meritocracy
Parsons sees the school as a 'focalising agency'in modern society, acting as a bridge between family and wider society

Secondary socialisation:society sees that we are all equal by law. Within the family,the childs status is ascribed : fixed by birth. in contrast, wider society judges us on universalistic and impersonal standards

Meritocracy is based on two key values
Individual achievement - everyone achieves statuds by their own status , equal opportunity is for every individual to achieve their full potential.

4

Meritocracy

School is a minature version of wider society , individuals succeed or fail based on their own ability and effort

5

Davis and Moore : Role allocation
Educations maion function is to allocate roles , they select pupilks for their future work roles

Davis and Moore show us that the most important roles in society are fulfilled by the most talented people , not everyone is equally talented, society offers higher rewards for these jobs
a meritocratic education system allows equal competition, it sifts and sorts so that the most talented get the best qualifications and better jobs

6

Human capital theory

modern society is technologically advanced,

7

Evaluation of the functionalist perspective
INTERACTIONISTS ARGUE THAT THE FUNCTIONALIST VIEW OPF SOCIALISATION IS TOO DETERMINISTIC

education is meritocratic, the School discriminates against minority groups

education does not necessarily equip people for their future work roles , there is no direct link between the subjects studied in school to future jobs

A PERSONS ASCRIBED CHARACTERISTICS ARE MORE IMPORTANT IN DETERMINING THEIR INCOME LATER IN LIFE THAN IS THEIR ACHIEVEMENT IN SCHOOL

8

Neoliberalism

Neoliberalism argues that the school should not provide education, health and welfare
Neoliberalism is based on the idea that the state must not show individuals how to dispose of their own economy

9

Neoliberalism and the new right perspective

The new right is a political like perspective
their views are:

10

chubb and moe

show that pupils from low income families do 5% better in private schools.
state education has failed to create equal opportunity because it fails to respond to pupils needs
chubb and moe call for the introduction of a market system in state education where parents and carers are the consumers. They argue that this will improve equality and efficiency

11

evaluation of the new right perspective

gerwitz- argues that the middle class can use the competition to their advantage through the use of economic and cultural capital to gain access to good schools
ctitics argue that the cause of low educational standards is because of social inequality and inadequate funding of state schools

12

the Marxist perspective on education

Marxists see society as based on class divisions and exploitation
they argue that there is a capitalist class- the bourgeoise - who own the means of production (land, factopries, offices) and they make profits by exploiting their labourers ( the working class)
the working class- sell their labour power to the capitalists since they own no means of production . As a result, they are poorly paid
THIS CREATES CLASS CONFLICT, THREATENING THE STABILITY OF CAPITALISM.

13

Althusser: the ideological state apparatus
repressive state apparatus

the representative state apparatuses ( rsa)- maintain the rule of the bourgeoise, protecting the intrests and use force to repress the working class by the police, courts and army
the ideological state apparatus- Isa- control peoples ideas, values, beliefs - including religion and the education system

14

what two functions does education perform as Isa?

education reproduces class inequality, by failing each generation especially working class as they usually end up as their parents

education justifies class inequality by producing ideas and beliefs that disguise its true cause.||Education tries to show that inequality is inevitable , failure is the fault of the individual, not the capitalist society

15

bowles and gintis
THEY BELIEVE THAT EDUCTION STUNTS AND DISORTS THE STUDENTS DEVELOPMENT

capitalism needs its workers with obedient attitudes that is willing to accept hard work, low pay and authority
in their case study, they showed that the submissive worker showed independence and gained low grades, and those that were obedient and discipline to gain high grades

16

The correspondence principle

schooling takes place in the long shadow of work. the relationships and structures found in education correspond to those of work
this can be shown through two ways
work : alienation over the workers lack of production
school: alienation, pupils lack control over education

another example:
school: headteachers> teacher > pupil ( have authority)
work: boss> supervisor> worker

17

the hidden curriculum

the correspondence principle operates throught the hidden curriculum - ALL THE LESSONS BEING TAUGHT IN SCHOOL WITHOUT BEING DIRECTLY TAUGHT- PUPILS ACCEPT HEIRACHY, COMPETITION AND ALIENATION

18

the myth of meritocracy

the education system prevents peop,le from recognising their exploited position and rebelling against the system
the education system creates many myths- functionalists argue that education and work are meritocratic because int heir view everyone has an equal opportunity to achieve

bowles and gintins argue that this is a myth because success is based on class background, not educational achievement , meritocracy helps persuade workers to accept inequality

19

bowles and Gintis- role allocation

they reject the functionalist claim that the most talented do the most important meritocracy awarded jobs. they found that obedient students got the best grades, not those who were non conformist

the education system rewards those who conform to the qualities of the future workforce

20

neoliberalism

neoliberals argue that the state should not provide for services such as education, healthcare and welfare

neoliberalism shows us that the state should not guide individuals , government should encourage competiton

21

the new right

argues that the state cannot meet peoples needs and and people should fulfill their own needs through the free market
THEY FAVOUR THE MARKETISATION OF EDUCATION

22

What do the new right and functionalists believe on?

some prople are more talented than others
- they favour the education system for meritocratic principals of open education
-education should socialise pupils on shared values , such as competition and instill a sense of national identity

the new right believe in creating an education market , the competition between schools is powerful, enabling diversity, choice and efficiency.

23

chubb and moe: consumer choice

state run education had failed because: it has not created equal opportunity in the needs of disadvantaged groups
-private schools deliver higher quality education because they get paid by parents

chubb an moe call for the introduction of a market system that would give parents control , this would allow consumers to shape their needs to improve quality and efficiency
to introduce this system, chubb and moe believe that families should buy education from schpools in the form of vouchers , this would allow schools to become more responsive to the parents wishes

24

who critiscises chubb and moes view?

the new right.
they argue that the state has two roles.
- it imposes a framework on schools.for example, there are Ofsted reports and league table reports that give information to parents

-the state ensures that schools transmit a shared culture.For example, everyone in the united \Kingdom goes by the national cirriculum for education.

25

who critiscises the new right?

Gerwitz-competition between schools benefit the middle class who csan use their cultural and economic capital to get into desirable schools

26

the marxist perspective on education

they see that society has two main classes- capital class and the working class
capitalist class- the bourgeoise- make profits by exploiting the proletariat

this creates class conflict.When they realise that they are being exploited, they ask for higher wages and better working conditions

27

althusser: the ideological state apparatuses

the repressive state apparatuses (RSA): they maintain the rulle of the bourgeoise or the force that maintains it.They include the police, courts and army.

The ideological state apparatuses (ISA) :maintain the rule of the bourgeois by controlling peoples ideas, beliefs and values
eg: the media, the education system and religion

28

what does althusser believe about the state

it performs two functions
education reproduces class inequality by passing it on from generation to generation
education justifies class inequality by producing a set of ideas

29

bowles and gintis : schooling in capitalist america

they believe that capitalism requires a workforce with a personality accustomed to their role as exploited workers ( they are willing to accept hard work and low pay orders from people of position )

Bowles and Gintis argue that the role of education is to : reproduce an obedient workforce that accepts inequality as inevitable

30

Bowles and gintis case study

they found that students who had creativity and showed independence

while those who showed obedience and discipline gained high grades

bowles and ginits conclude that schooling helps to produce the obedient workers . they believe that education stunts and distorts a students development