Flashcards in Topic 1- Class differences in achievement - external factors Deck (43)
Centre of Longitudinal Studies
By the age of three, children from disadvantaged backgrounds are a year behind those from privileged backgrounds.
Basic values, attitudes and skills needed for educational success.
Outline features of cultural equipment
Language, self discipline and reasoning skills, without these, children underachieve and don't perform well in school.
Less educated parents...
Use less descriptive language, allowing their children to respond in simple sentences, disrupting their intellectual growth.
Educated parents are more likely to use praise.
What do berieter and englemann believe
That language used in lower class homes is deficient, they communicate with gestures, single words and phrases.
What is the result of children using gestures,single words and phrases?
They are unable to use language to explain, describe and compare, they cannot use school to their advantage.
what does bernstien distinguish?
He distinguishes between two codes: the Elaborated code and the Restricted code. The Restricted code is used by working class, who use simple/ short sentences and limited vocabulary and sometimes gestures to communicate.
The Restricted code: usually middle class, they use wider vocabulary, complex sentences , they use language to spell out their meanings to the listener.
These differences in speech code give middle class children an advantage and puts the working class at a disadvantage as the elaborated code is seen as the 'correct' way to read and write
do these speech codes give MC an advantage
Yes, the elaborated code is used by teachers, textbooks and exams, its the correct way to read or write.
Middle class feel at home because this is the language that was taught to them at home.Working class will be less successful and feel excluded.
Working class parents place less value on education , they are less ambitious for their children , gave less encouragement and visited schools less often
Disciplines children and gives them high expectations , it encourages active learning
less EDUCATED PARENTS- tell their children to do as their told and prevents self control and independence
= problems at school and difficult interaction with teachers
parents educational behaviours
Educated parents read to their children, teach them letters, numbers and songs , have good relationships with teachers and do educational visits to public places such as the library.
use of income
Better educated parents use income to promote their children's educational success.
what do Bernstien and young argue
That educated mothers are likely to buy educational toys books and activities to encourage reasoning skills
working class subculture
what are the four key features that act like a barrier to educational achievement
Fatalism, collectivism, immediate gratification and present time orientation.,
It is what it is mindset , you cant change your status, you can change your position with effort.
Valuing being part of a group more than succeeding as an individual.
Seeking pleasure now rather than seeking pleasures later on, mc use deferred gratification, the opposite of immediate gratification.
present time orientation
Seeing the present as more important and not the future, not having long term goals.
MATERIAL DEPRIVATION BEING THE MAIN CAUSE OF UNDERACHIEVEMENT
examples:housing and income
true or false:exclusion and truancy is more common in low income families , children excluded from school are less likely to return to mainstream education, put into PRU's
can effect directly and indirectly, overcrowding can make it difficult for children to study- There is less room for educational activities , disturbed sleep etc.
housing can make schooling difficult for children as they may have to move from place to place frequently
cold, damp and mould can cause bad health.
This often causes parents stress, meaning that there are more days missed off school.
diet and health
poor nutrition weakens the immune system and lowers a child's energy levels. This leads to school absences and difficulty concentrating.
young people from poorer homes have lower intakes of energy.
among ten year olds, hyperactivity can have a negative impact on a child's education.
Blanden and Machin
children from low income families are likely to engage in disruptive behaviour eg: fighting, temper tantrums
= a disrupted education
educational and economic capital
MC with cultural capital are better equipped to meet the standards of the school and gain qualifications =
wealthy parents can convert their economic capital into educational capital BY SENDING THEIR CHILDREN TO PRIVATE SCHOOLS
What does Sullivan say?
those who read complex fiction gained a wider vocab and greater cultural knowledge , children of graduates were more successful at gcse