Topic 7 Flashcards Preview

GCSE Edexcel Biology grade 9-1 course, topics 6-9 > Topic 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 7 Deck (200)
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31

where is progesterone released from?

the corpus luteum

32

what is the function of FSH?

FSH stimulates oestrogen production and causes a follicle to mature in one of the ovaries. a follicle is an egg and it's surrounding cells.

33

what is the function of oestrogen?

oestrogen causes the lining of the uterus to thicken and grow. The uterus lining (the endometrium) thickens until day 14 when ovulation begins. Following ovulation oestrogen production decreases if the egg is not fertilised.

34

what is the function of LH?

A high level of oestrogen stimulates an LH surge. The LH surge stimulates ovulation (at day 14).

35

what is the function of progesterone?

•Progesterone is released after ovulation.

•Progesterone maintains the lining of uterus and inhibits the release of FSH and LH.

•The uterus lining (the endometrium) breaks down if there is a low oestrogen level and a low progesterone level.

•The low progesterone level allows FSH to increase and then the menstrual cycle begins again.

•If the egg is not fertilised then the level of progesterone will decrease, therefore the menstrual cycle begins again if the egg is not fertilised.

36

why are men who have had their testes removed at Moore risk of developing brittle bones?

they are more at risk because testosterone leads to denser bones in males compared to females. As the testes are glands which produce testosterone, if the testes are removed then less testosterone will be produced so there is an increased risk of brittle bones.

37

What are the methods of contraception?

• the diaphragm
•female condom
•the male condom
•IUD
•Combined pill
•mini pill
•combined patch

38

what are the barrier methods of contraception?

•diaphragm
•female condom
•male condom

39

what are the hormonal methods of contraception?

•IUD
•combined pill
•mini pill
•combined patch

40

how does the diaphragm work as a method of contraception?

•inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse
•it blocks the cervix
•it has to be used with a spermicide to be effective
• it stops the sperm from reaching the egg and the spermicide kills the sperm and the cap stops the sperm.
•it has to stay in the vagina for at least 6 hours after sex for prevention of pregnancy

41

what are the advantages of the diaphragm as a method of contraception?

•doesn't have to be used all the time
•no associated health risks
•can add extra spermicide
•suitable for unplanned sex
•reusable
•has no effect on periods
•fertility returns to normal afterwards

42

what are the disadvantages of the diaphragm as a method of contraception?

•not as effective as other types of contraception
•only provides limited protection against STIs
•cystitis can be a problem for some women
•latex and spermicide can cause irritations for some women and their partners

43

how does the female condom work?

•it is worn inside the vagina
•it stops sperm getting into the uterus

44

what are the advantages of using a female condom as a method of contraception?

•protects against STIs and pregnancies
•no medical side effects
•can be inserted up to 8 hours before sex
•protects both partners
•made from polyurethane so can be used for people allergic to latex

45

what are the disadvantages of using a female condom as a method of contraception?

•aren't reusable
•can split or tear if not used correctly
•not as widely available as other contraception

46

how does the male condom work?

•worn over the penis
•stops sperm getting into the uterus

47

what are the advantages of using a male condom as a method of contraception?

•protects against STIs and pregnancies
•no medical side effects
•protects both partners
•can be made of materials other than latex

48

what are the disadvantages of using a male condom as a method of contraception?

•aren't reusable
•can split or tear is not used correctly
•not reusable

49

what does IUD stand for?

Intra uterine device

50

how does IUD work as a method of contraception?

•releases copper to change fluids in the womb and fallopian tubes so stops sperm from surviving.
•can also stop fertilised eggs from implanting in the womb.

51

What are the advantages of using IUD as a method of contraception?

•most women can use an IUD
•It works straight away once fitted
•It lasts for up to 10 years (or until removed)
•normal fertility returns to normal as soon as it is taken out
•it is not affected by other medicines
•can be used by breastfeeding mothers

52

What are the disadvantages of using IUD as a method of contraception?

•periods may last longer, become heavier, or more painful
•Doesn't protect against STIs
•can lead to pelvic infections if an STI is contracted while using it

53

How does the combined pill work as a method of contraception?

•contains oestrogen and progesterone
•the progesterone stimulates the production of thick cervical mucus in the cervix so it is harder for sperm to reach eggs in the uterus
•the combination of both hormones thins the lining of the womb so there is less chance of a fertilised egg implanting or being able to grow.

54

How does the mini pill work as a method of contraception?

•contains progesterone
•produces thick cervical mucus in the cervix so it's harder for sperm to penetrate the uterus and reach eggs to fertilise them
•prevents ovulation

55

what is the difference between IUD and IUS?

IUD is hormone free and IUS is hormonal

56

How does the combined patch work as a method of contraception?

•delivers oestrogen and progesterone through the skin
•prevents ovulation
•progesterone produces thick cervical mucus in the cervix so it's harder for sperm to reach eggs in the uterus
•combination of both hormones thins the lining of the uterus so there is less chance of a fertilised egg implanting or being able to grow
•works the same as the combined pill but in patch form.

57

What does ART stand for?

Assisted Reproductive Technology

58

What is ART?

•ART includes all fertility treatments which involve handling eggs or embryos outside of the body.

•The techniques involve treatments which deal with both the female's eggs and the male's sperm.

•It works by removing eggs from a woman's body and mixing them with sperm to make zygotes. Finally, the zygotes are put back into the female's body.

•procedures are usually used with fertility drugs to increase success rates

59

What does IVF stand for?

In Vitro Fertilisation

60

What is IVF?

When drugs, hormones and medicines are used for ART.
IVF is carried out using the female's eggs and the male's sperm and/or sperm from donors.