Flashcards in Topic 7 Deck (200)
where does selective reabsorption happen in the kidney?
in the medulla
what happens in the first stage of how blood is filtered in the nephron?
blood enters the Bowman's capsule under high pressure. Blood is filtered by the kidney, this is called ultrafiltration. Red blood cells and protein molecules are too big to pass out of the blood.
what does blood contain?
•red blood cells
what happens in the second stage or how blood is filtered in the nephron?
the liquid filtrate passes down the proximal convoluted tubule in the loop of Henle
what happens in the third stage of how blood is filtered in the nephron?
ALL glucose is selectively reabsorbed. SOME water and mineral ions are selectively reabsorbed back into the blood in the loop of Henle
what happens in the fourth stage of how the blood is filtered in the nephron?
from the distal convoluted tubule the filtrate flows into the collecting duct
what happens in stage five of how blood is filtered in the nephron?
urine is formed in the collecting duct from water, mineral ions and urea
what happens in stage six of how blood is filtered in the nephron?
urine flows out of the kidney via the renal pelvis into the ureter. the ureter connects the kidney to the bladder. Urine is stored in the bladder and leaves the body through the urethra during urination.
what substances are too big to pass into the Bowman's capsule to be filtered?
red blood cells and protein molecules
what is inside the Bowman's capsule? What is it made up of?
the glomerulus, it is made up of capillaries
what structures in the nephron are in the renal cortex of the kidney?
the Bowman's capsule, the distal convoluted tubule, and the collecting duct
what structures in the nephron are in the renal medulla of the kidney?
the proximal convoluted tubule and the loop of Henle,
What are the tiny filtering units in a kidney called?
nephrons (or Bowman's capsule)
what is the process when blood is squeezed under high pressure in osmoregulation called?
during ultrafiltration what are examples of the molecules which leave the blood and enter the renal tubule?
water, glucose, mineral ions and urea
what is the process by which some water, salt (mineral ions) and all of the glucose re-enters the blood in osmoregulation?
what is the waste liquid in osmoregulation called?
what are the tubes called where urine leaves the kidneys?
where does urine collect?
where is glucose reabsorbed into the blood?
in the loop of Henle by diffusion and active transport (at low concentrations)
where are water and mineral ions reabsorbed into the blood?
in the loop of Henle by osmosis (water) and by diffusion and active transport for mineral ions (at low concentrations)
what is osmoregulation?
the regulation of the amount of water in the body
by what process does glucose move from the liquid in a nephron into the blood?
for which substances is the concentration of the substance the same in the renal vein as it is in the renal artery (in osmoregulation)?
glucose and protein
for which substances is the concentration of the substance lower in the renal vein than it is in the renal artery (in osmoregulation)?
water and sodium (mineral ions/salt)
how would animal cells be affected if there was too much or too little water or mineral ions in the blood?
cells may take in too much or lose too much water due to osmosis. this may damage cells because water in cells allows all of the molecules in the cytoplasm to undergo chemical reactions. Water is also needed to maintain cell structure, without water animal cells would shrink and with too much water animal cells would undergo lysis (burst)
what does ADH stand for?
what is ADH?
ADH is a hormone which alters the permeability of the collecting duct in the nephron as part of osmoregulation.
where is ADH stored?
in the pituitary gland