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Flashcards in Total Protein Lecture Deck (57)
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1

Protein characteristics

carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen & oxygen
peptide bonds between the NH2 & the carboxyl group of 2 amino acids
zwitterion/ ampholytic property
~16% nitrogen

2

Zwitterion/ampholytic property

can take on a negative or positive charge depending on the pH being above or below an isoelectric point of the amino acid (pI)

3

Protein structure

primary - chain
secondary- pleated sheets & alpha helix
tertiary
quaternary- multi protein complex

4

Cellular protein synthesis

stimulating hormone acts on an active metabolite which will act on the nucleus & stimulate production of mRNA for certain protein to either be packaged and sent to other cells or remain in the cell

5

PKU aminoacidopathy

lack of phenylalanine hydroxylase -> build up of phenylalanine in the blood and can cause mental retardation in children & damages the brain

6

Tyrosinemia aminoacidopathy -3 types

type 1: fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase
type 2: tyrosine aminotransferase (most common) - build of tyrosine that can be damaging to a child's development
type 3 (rare): 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase

7

Alkaptonuria aaminoacidopathy

lack homogentisate oxidase & causes an accumulation of HGA & when urine is exposed to the atmosphere it will turn black (very dark)

8

Maple Syrup Disease (MSUD) aminoacidopathy

decreased or absent branched chain a-ketoacid decarboxylase
this enzyme is important in metabolizing branched chain amino acids & causes them to build up & be excreted through the urine & smells like maple syrup

9

Isovaleric Acidemia aminoacidopathy

isovaleryl-Co-A dehydrogenase

10

Homocystinuria aminoacidopathy

cystathionine-beta-synthetase w/o this enzyme you can get a build up of the precursor

11

Citrullinemia aminoacidopathy

type 1: argininosuccinic acid synthetase

12

Argininosuccinic Aciduria aminoacidopathy

lack of arginosuccinic acid lyase

13

Cystinuria aminoacidopathy

defect in amino acid transport system so that kidneys do not filter cystine & precipitates in the urine

14

Protein Functions

energy
osmotic force - albumin
acid-base balance
transport
antibodies
hormones
enzymes
hemostasis

15

total protein

range: 6.4-8.3 g/dL
2 groups:
albumin & globular proteins
other tissue proteins should not normally be found in the blood

16

Albumin general

3.4-5.0 g/dL
most abundant serum protein
transport protein
osmotic balance

17

globulin general

2.5-4.2 g/dL
many specific proteins in this group, differentiated from electrophoresis

18

Pre-albumin (Transthyretin)

transport protein for T4 & T3
binds retinol-binding protein to transport vitA (special interest to nutritionists)

19

Albumin (specific)

small protein w/ highest concentration in the body
80% of colloid osmotic pressure
buffers pH
negative acute phase reactant (decreases during stress/inflammation)

20

alpha 1 globulins

alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT)
alpha-1-fetoprotein (AFP)
alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid)
alpha-1-antichymotrypsin

21

alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT)

inhibits neutrophil elastase (Protease)
increased in acute phase reaction, pregnancy, & contraception meds

22

alpha-1-fetoprotein (AFP)

synthesized in the embryonic development
binds to estradiol
low AFP in mom can indicate Down's syndrome

23

alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid)

acute phase reactant
elevated in stress, inflammation AMI etc etc

24

alpha-1-antichymotrypsin

inhibits enzymes CHYMOTRYPSIN, cathespin G, pancreatic elastase etc
acute phase reaction

25

alpha 2 globulin proteins

Gc-globulin (vitD binding protein)
haptoglobin
ceruloplasmin
alpha-2-macroglobulin

26

Gc-globulin (vitD binding protein)

alpha 2 globulin
carries vit D, fatty acids & endotoxins

27

Haptoglobin

alpha 2 globulin
acute phase reactant
BINDS TO HEMOGLOBIN
increased in inflammation etcetc

28

Ceruloplasmin

alpha 2 globulin
acute phase reactant w/ 8 copper attached
causes Wilson's disease

29

alpha-2-macroglobulin

major component of alpha 2 band
inhibits trypsin, thrombin, etc etc (inhibits coag factors)

30

beta globulin proteins

transferrin
hemopexin
lipoproteins
beta-2-microglobulin
complement
fibrinogen
C-reactive protein