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Flashcards in Cardiac Function Deck (48)
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1

heart anatomy

2 atriums & 2 ventricles
tricuspid valve & mitral valve
3 layers of fibrous membrane

2

tricuspid valve

separates right atrium from right ventricle

3

mitral valve

separates left atrium from left ventricle

4

visceral pericardium

inner layer of pericardium

5

perietal percardium

outer layer of pericardium

6

pericardium fluid

fluid between layers

7

3 layers of heart wall

epicardium, myocardium, endocardium

8

epicardium

outer layer of heart wall

9

myocardium

middle layer, striated muscle fibers, has actin, myosin & troponin as well as myoglobin in this layer
enzymes CK-MB & LD isoenzymes LD1 & LD2 are found here

10

damage to the myocardium results in what?

troponin
CK-MB
LD isoenzymes into serum

11

Dyspnea

shortness of breath
symptom of heart disease

12

Chest pain

gamete from angina to crushing pain
symptom of heart disease

13

Palpitations

thumping to flip-flops, heart to catch these for evaluations
symptom of heart disease

14

Syncope

fainting, loss of consciousness
symptom of heart disease

15

Edema

swelling of tissues, legs, eyes, abdomen, chest wall (especially for congestive heart failure)
symptom of heart disease

16

Cyanosis

bluish color of fingernails, lips, non-02 blood
symptom of heart disease

17

symptoms of heart disease

Dyspnea
chest pain
palpitations
syncope
edema
cyanosis

18

5 categories of cardiac diseases

Congenital cardiovascular diseases
heart failure
acute coronary syndrome
hypertensive heart disease
infective heart disease

19

Congenital heart disease

congenital cardiovascular defects= CCVD
defects range from heart walls, valves, artery & veins crisscrossing etc

20

symptoms of congenital heart disease

cyanosis, pulmonary hypertension, clubbing of fingers, embolisms, reduced growth, & syncope (fainting)

21

development of congenital heart defects

most defects are multi-factorial & include some environmental factors
infants develop heart w/in first 10 weeks of pregnancy & pick up on infants a few weeks after birth

22

CCVDs

Tetralogy of Fallot
VSD

23

Tetralogy of Fallot

transposition of arteries, atrio ventricular septa defects, coartction of the aorta, hypoplastic left heart syndrome
ventricular septa defects (most common)

24

VSD

hole between 2 ventricles, leads to hypertrophy, increased pulmonary pressure, blood shunted away from aorta
decreased output

25

tests for CCVD

increased catecholamines & salt
water retention
do FISH tests for DNA mutations

26

Heart failure

when any structural or functional cardiac disorder impairs the ability of the ventricle to fill & eject blood

27

common causes of HF

coronary artery disease (CAD)
cardiomyopathies (thickening of ventricle walls)
inflammatory heart diseases
valvular disease
cardiac arrhythmias

28

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)

events:
angina-> reversible tissue injury -> unstable angina -> MI -> extensive heart tissue necrosis

29

Acute coronary syndrome symptoms

chest pain, referred pain, nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, diaphoresis, light headed
typical 'heart attack' symptoms

30

major causes of acute coronary syndrome

atherosclerosis or inflammation involving cholesterol, bacteria, hyperlipidemia, glycosylated products from diabetes &/or inflammatory cytokines