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Flashcards in Metals Deck (46)
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1

Arsenic

toxic metal, nonessential element
no known biologic function in humans

2

arsenic exposure

environmental & toxic
acute poisoning = blood level 600-9300 ug/L
chronic poisoning= blood level 100-500 ug/L

3

acute arsenic toxicity symptoms

GI nausea, abdomen pain, diarrhea
affects bone marrow, decreases plts, anemia, CV system, renal insufficiency, liver (hepatitis)

4

chronic arsenic toxicity symptoms

dermatologic & hepatic symptoms
affects CV, CNS, & causes malignant changes

5

Arsenic methods

prefer urine sample
ICP-MS, AAS, GFAAS

6

Lead methods

use whole blood & urine
ICP-MS, Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) or erythrocyte protoporphyrins, AAS

7

Mercury methods

blood & urine samples
ICP-MS, cold vapor AAS

8

Blood & urine ranges for Mercury

blood: 0-60 ug/dL
urine: 0-15 ug/day
toxic urine: >150 ug/L

9

Lead (Pb) exposure

environmental toxic metal
paint chips & former gasoline additive
lead paint on toys from china

10

Lead absorption

absorb through lungs & GI tract
inhaled Pb : 30-40% --> binds 94% to hemoglobin & 6% in plasma
Pb half-life is 2-3 weeks in whole blood

11

Lead excretion

urine: 76%
feces: 16%
hair, nails, sweat etc: 8%

12

Lead toxicity

children are most susceptible
> 60 ug/dL is toxic
GI & CNS symptoms: pain, colic, constipation, headache, seizures, clumsiness
acute: occupational or asian herbal supplements
chronic: motor weakness, chronic renal insufficiency, anemia, etc

13

Mercury General

general uses: antibacterial agent, preservative, disinfectant, pesticide, paint, batteries, photographic reagent
no known human need for mercury - toxic metal
used in HgCl as diuretic
vaccine preservative
dental fillings

14

Mercury metabolism

5-90 days in body depending on type & intake route ( can get in major organs & glands)
can cross blood-brain barrier & placenta (!)
toxicity is due from interaction w/ sulfhydryl group

15

Mercury toxicity symptoms

headache, tremor, impaired coordination, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, proteinuria, hepatic dysfunciton

16

Mercury urine screen

called Reinsch test
copper coil in urine w/ HCl, cook for 45 min
metal deposits on coil
mercury on coil looks silvery & shiny

17

Copper general

needed for biochemistry of # of enzymes & clotting factor V
metalloenzyme to :
ceruloplasmin - major copper enzyme
SOD, cytochrome C oxidase, tyrosinase, metallothionein, dopamin-B-hydroxylase

18

Copper range

serum: 700-1500 ug/L
urine: 15-60 ug/24 hr
RBC copper: 90-150 ug/L
50-120 mg in body
high concentrations in liver, brain, heart & kidneys

19

Copper deficiency

malabsorption, malnutrition, chronic diarrhea
signs: osteoporosis, neutropenia, decreased pigmentation, neurologic abnormalities
MENKES kinky hair syndrome

20

Copper toxicity

Wilson's disease (!) - neurologic disorder, liver dysfunction, Kayser-Fleischer rings in the cornea
treat toxicity w/ chelation therapy

21

Iron general

needed for enzymes, hemoglobin, myoglobin, peroxidase, cytochromes etc

22

Iron range

3-5 grams
2-2.5 g in hemoglobin

23

Iron Absorption

10% of 1g/day is absorbed through the GI from diet

24

Iron transport

transferrin

25

Iron excretion

urine & feces

26

Iron deficiency

iron deficient anemia - 15% worldwide

27

Iron Toxicity

iron overload: hemochromatosis seen in diabetes, cirrhosis, hypothyoid, liver cancer
iron as pro-oxidant : lipid peroxidation, atherosclerosis, DNA damage, carcinogenesis, neurodegenerative disease

28

Iron analysis

Serum iron, TIBC, % saturation, transferrin, ferritin

29

Manganese general

Mn is essential trace metal: biological functions include-
Mn containing enzymes ( arginase, pyruvate carboxylase, Mn super oxide dismutase)
Mn-activating enzymes (hydrolases, kinases, decarboxylases & transferases)
linked to Fe absorption by the GI (only 2-15% absorbed from small intestine due to effects of iron, cadmium, phophates & fiber)

30

Manganese Toxicity

symptoms: nausea, vomiting, headache, memory loss, compulsion to cry/laugh
acute: chilean miners madness
chronic: similar to parkinson's disease w/ akinesia, rigidity, tremors, masklike face