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Flashcards in Toxicology Deck (32)
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1

Carbon monoxide

binds to hgb 200-225x more than 02
results in tissue hypoxia & anoxia
leftward shift in o2 dissociation curve

2

CO specimen

EDTA whole blood

3

Cadmium

significant environmental pollutant
ingestion & inhalation
toxic to the kidney tubules

4

cadmium lab result

proteinuria
glucouria
aminoaciduria

5

cadmium analysis

whole blood or urine by atomic absorption

6

Lead general

long half life in blood, tissue, & bone
leads to anemia, GI tract, CNS damage & renal disease

7

lead inhibits:

delta-aminoleuvlinic acid dehydrase (ALA)
ferrochelatse
hinders vit D active forms

8

lead specimen

whole blood or urine & hair
atomic absorption or anodic stripping voltammetry

9

caustic agents

strong acids or bases in household or occupations
inhalation - pulmonary shock, edema, rapid death
ingestion - lesions in esophagus & GI tract, perforations, hematemesis, abdominal pain & shock
results in metabolic acidosis or alkalosis

10

Cyanide

used in industry
inhale, ingest or absorb through skin
home insulation fire produces CO & cyanide gas

11

cyanide mechanism

cyanide binds to heme iron, uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, depletes cell ATP levels

12

cyanide methods

assay by ISE on blood, & spectro methods for thiocyanate in urine

13

pesticides

organophosphates & carbamates inhibit acetylcholinesterase in insects & humans

14

acetylcholinesterase

degrades acetylcholine so it can activate the nerve impulse again
when it is inhibited the acetylcholine is not reduced & nerve is static

15

Acetaminophen

overdoses untreated go to hepatic toxicity & necrosis

16

acetaminophen & liver

detoxified by liver MFO system & is saturated -> see depletion of glutathione & increase free radical formation & damages cells

17

Amphetamines clinical use

used for narcolepsy & attention-deficit disorder
riddalin

18

amphetamine effects

initial sense of mental & physical capabilities beyond normal
then feelings of irritability & psychosis

19

amphetamine overdose

hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, convulsions, paranoia & death

20

amphetamine cross-reacts w/

over the counter meds : ephedrine, pseudoephedrine & phenylpropanolamine
problems during immunoassays

21

Anabolic steroids chronic use

toxic hepatitis, accelerated atherosclerosis, abnormal plt aggregation (stroke, AMI) enlargement of heart muscle w/o necessary vascularization
sudden death
testicular atrophy, sterility & impotence

22

screening for anabolic steroids

look for ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone T/E ratio

23

elevated T/E ratio

means exogenous testosterone present

24

cannabinoid active ingredient

THC
delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
lipid soluble- slow to eliminate

25

cocaine effects

CNS stimulate
euphoria
increased alertness
toxicity: hypertension (stroke), arrhythmias, seizures, MI

26

cocaine metabolism

half life is 30 mins-1 hr
metabolized by liver hydrolysis (!)

27

cocaine analysis

look for benzoylecgonine metabolite in urine

28

opiates

natural: opium, morphine, codeine
chemically modified: heroin, hydromorphine, oxycodone
synthetic: merperidine, methadone, propoxyphen, pentazocine, fentanyl

29

antidote for opiate overdose

naloxone

30

opiate effects

pain relief
acute toxicity: decreased respiratory rate, MYOGLOBINURIA, CARDIAC DAMAGE