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Flashcards in Glucose Lecture Deck (45)
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1

Ketones

by products of fats that are used to make energy instead of glucose

2

Ketoacidosis

when the body has a pH less than 7.35 due to the abundance of ketones

3

ketoniemia

ketones present in the blood

4

Ketonuria

ketones in the urine

5

OGTT

oral glucose tolerance test

6

GDM

gestational diabetes mellatius

7

Carbohydrates

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen w/ either an aldehyde or ketone configuration
major energy supply
monosaccharides- glucose, fructose, galactos
disaccharides - sucrose (glucose & fructose), lactose (glucose & galactose), maltose (2 glucose)
polysaccharides- glycogen, starch

8

Amylase

gland in saliva that helps break down starches
stomach acids denature the salivary enzymes

9

Metabolism of CHO

begins w/ salivary amylase -> stomach acids -> disaccharides in the intestines (lactase, maltase, sucrase bc GI only absorbs monosaccharides) -> monos absorbed-> glucose stored in fat cells or utilized in other cells

10

Glucose pathways

glucose-6-phosphate :
embden-myerhof pathway (glycolysis)
hexose monophosphate pathway
convert moiety to glycogen

11

Glycogenesis

conversion of glucose to glycogen

12

Glycogenolysis

conversion of glycogen to glucose

13

Gluconeogensis

glucose from non-CHO sources : amino acids etc

14

Glycolysis

breakdown of glucose to pyruvate or lactate

15

Glucose clinical reference

ranges : ~80-100 mg/dL
>125 mg/dL during fasting -> suspect diabetes
hemolyzed specimen can alter lab results

16

insulin

decreases blood glucose (hypoglycemic agent) via aiding in the uptake of glucose into the cells

17

glucagon

increases blood glucose (hyperglycemic agent)
uses glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis to increase blood glucose levels

18

Epinephrine effect on blood glucose

glucose will increase

19

glucocorticoids (cortisol) effect on blood glucose

stimulates gluconeogenesis particularly to increase blood glucose levels
cortisol breaks down protein so the amino acids will be converted to glucose

20

growth hormone effect on blood glucose

pituitary hormones
increases blood glucose

21

ACTH effect on blood glucose

pituitary hormone
stimulates cortisol release (increases)

22

Thyroxine (T4) effect on blood glucose

increases blood glucose
can speed up metabolism & a loss of T4 can decrease metabolism & can also aid in absorption of glucose in GI tract

23

Somatostatin effect on blood glucose

can influence growth hormone (ergo increase blood glucose); also known as IGF
protein produced from the liver

24

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

insulin deficiency, often autoimmune destruction of beta cells of pancreas
affects about 10% of diabetic population

25

chronic disease effects of diabetes

eyes- retinopathy: optic nerve is especially susceptible to excess glucose
kidneys- renal disease & nephropathy
blood vessels - peripheral neuropathy
ketoacidosis- not enough insulin to utilize glucose & cells start to break down fats

26

general diabetic symptoms

polydipsia - thirst
polyphagia- increased food consumption
polyuria - increased urine production
rapid weight loss
hyperventilation
mental confusion ( brain is only getting ketones)

27

Lab testing for diabetes

fasting glucose >100 mg/dL
urine sp. gravity
serum & urine osmolalities
ketones present
blood & urine pH from ketoacidosis
electrolyte imbalance
hemoglobin A1c

28

Diabetes type 2

non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
may be obesity related
affects 90% of diabetic population
often lack of adequate insulin-receptors on cells or lack of adequate insulin synthesis

29

Glucose analyzer methods

2 major reactions
B-D-glucose + O2 -(glucose oxidase)-> D-glucono-&-lactone ---> gluconic acid + H2O2
use perxoide produced in 2nd reaction:
H2O2 + chromogen --(peroxidase)-->ox-chromogen +H2O2

30

glucose peroxidase

enzyme used in 1st reaction for glucose analyzing
specifically breaks down specifically beta-D glucose