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Neurology Year 3 > Tumours > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tumours Deck (44)
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1

What are the general presenting complaints of someone with a brain tumour?

Progressive neurological deficit
Motor weakness
Headache
Seizures

2

Describe the headache related to a brain tumour

Worse in the morning or upon coughing
Linked with vomiting

3

Which cells are the most common cause of brain tumours?

Neurepithelial

4

How are astrocytic tumours graded?

I - Benign
II - Astrocytomall
III - Malignant
IV - V. Malignant

5

Describe a Grade I Astrocytic tumour.

Truly benign slow going
Well encapsulated

6

How can a Grade I Astrocytic tumour present?

Hydrocephalus
Tip Toe gate
Slow mental development

7

What is the most common Astrocytic tumour in children?

Pilocytic Astrocytoma - generally arising in the cerebellum.

8

Describe how a Pilocytic Astrocytoma may appear in radiology.

Well Circumscribed
Contrast enhancing
Often cystic mass

9

For Grade I Astrocytic tumours what is the treatment of choice?

Surgery is usually curative

10

What is the general presentation of someone with as Grade II Astrocytic Tumour?

Focal deficit
Raised ICP
Altered Consciousness
Short duration of symptoms

11

Give an example of a Grade II Astrocytic Tumour?

Astrocytoma

12

Describe an Atrocytoma.

Poorly defined Invasive
Appears histologically little different from normal.
No contrast enhancement

13

What is the prognosis for someone with an astrocytoma?

Generally poor in the longterm as will continue to grow even with surgical resection.

14

What is the treatment for Grade II Astrocytic tumours?

Surgery + Chemotherapy + Radiotherapy
Not curative the tumour will grow back slowly requires monitoring

15

What differentiates a Grade III from a Grade II Astrocytic tumour.

More invasive faster growing increased mitosis
Contrast enhancing on MRI

16

Give an example of a Grade III Astrocytic Tumour.

Anaplastic Astrocytoma

17

Describe an Anaplastic Astrocytoma

Poorly defined low density mass presenting with some contrast enhancement on MRI

18

Prognosis for an Anaplastic Astrocytoma

Median is 2 years

19

Treatment for Grade III Astrocytic Tumours.

Surgery + Chemotherapy + Radiotherapy

20

What is the most common Grade IV Astrocytic tumour?

Glioblastoma Multiforme

21

Describe a glioblastoma multiforme.

Very aggressive poorly differentiated tumour with evidence of new vessel growth brain tissue destruction and necrosis.

22

How do glioblastoma multiforme commonly appear on MRI?

Contrast enhancing - ring pattern is present
Surrounded by darker area of oedema

23

If multiple Glioblastoma multiforme are present what could be behind this?

Neurofibromatosis
Tuberose sclerosis

24

What is the prognosis for Glioblastoma Multiforme?

Very poor months at most

25

What is the treatment for Glioblastoma Multiforme?

Treatment is to improve quality of survival
Reducing the mass effect
Surgery Chemotherapy Radiotherapy

26

What is the medial survival of someone with a Oligodendroglial tumour?

10 years

27

If someone presents with a diffusely invasive tumour calcified cysts Microvascular growth and haemorrhage in the frontal lobes what is it likely to be?

Oligodendroglial tumour.

28

How does a oligodendroglial tumour present on imaging?

A well demarcated hypodense or isodense lesion
Possible calcification and cystic appearance

29

What is the treatment for an oligondedroglial tumour?

Chemotherapy
Surgery

30

What are the presenting symptoms of someone with a meningioma?

Headache
Cranial Nevre Neuropathies