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Neurology Year 3 > Dementia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dementia Deck (98)
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1

Degeneration in the cerebral cortex leads to what?

Alzheimers
Picks disease
Creutzfeldt jakob disease

2

Degeneration in the Basal Ganglia and brain stem leads to what?

Parkinsons
Multi System atrophy
Huntingtons

3

Degeneration in the spinocerebellar region leads to what?

Spinocerebellar ataxia

4

Degeneration in the motor neurones leads to what?

Motor Neurone Disease

5

What is dementia?

Pathological acquired and persistent generalised disturbance in higher mental function.

6

List some primary causes of dementia.

Alzheimers
Huntingtons
Picks disease

7

List some secondary causes of dementia.

Multi infarct dementia
Infection
Trauma
Drugs
Toxins
Vitamin deficiencies

8

Epidemiology of Alzheimer's

Most common dementia
F:M 2:1

9

What are some genetic risk causes of Alzhiemer's?

Amyloid Precursor Protein
Presenilin 1 and 2

10

In what condition is there an increased risk of Alzhiemer's?

Trisomy 21 - Down syndrome
Presence of Amyloid Precursor Protein

11

What is the cause of death in most Alzheimer's cases?

Secondary cause due to insidious impairment of higher function

12

What does the brain of someone with Alzheimer's look like?

Decreased size and weight
Cortical Atrophy - Frontotemporal and Parietal
Widened Sulci
Narrowed gyro
Compensatory ventricle dilation

13

Compensated ventricular dilation is a cause of what in Alzheimers?

Secondary Hydrocephalus

14

On a microscopic level what does the brain tissue of someone with Alzheimer's show?

Simple neuronal atrophy
Gliosis
Neurofibrillary tangles
Neuritic plaques

15

What are neurofibrillary tangles?

Microtubules within the cytoplasm contain Tau proteins

16

What make neuritic plaques?

Aβ amyloid plaques

17

What produces Aβ amyloid?

Cleavage of the Amyloid precursor protein

18

Describe the clinical presentation and history of someone with levy body dementia.

Fluctuating levels of attention/cognition
Hallucinations
Late onset memory loss
Motor features of Parkinsonism

19

Conditions affecting where in the brain will result in Parkinsonism?

Nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathways

20

What are lewy bodies?

Eosinophilic dense body surrounded by a halo of radiating fibrils

21

What causes lewy body dementia?

Degeneration of substantia nigra
Dopaminergic pathways are broken down

22

The brain of someone with lewy body dementia will show.

Pallor where pigmented substantia nigra was located.
Reactive gliosis

23

What is hunitingtons disease?

Inherited Autosomal dominant disease leading to rapidly progressive motor and cognitive disturbances.

24

What are the main symptoms of Huntington's?

Chorea
Myoclonus
Clumsiness
Slurred speech
Depression
Irritability
Apathy
Dementia later on

25

How many CAG repeats are present in normal population?

<28

26

How many CAG repeats are present when the disease is expressed?

>35

27

What regions of the brain undergo atrophy? HD

Basal Ganglia
Caudate nucleus
Putamen
Later fronto-parietal

28

On a microscopic level how are the tissues of the brain affected by Huntingtons?

Neuronal atrophy of striatal neurones within Basal ganglia
Astrocytic gliosis

29

Loss of striatal neurones within basal ganglia results in what?

Loss of motor inhibition

30

Frontotemporal dementia is also known as....

Picks disease