Flashcards in Dementia Deck (98)
Degeneration in the cerebral cortex leads to what?
Creutzfeldt jakob disease
Degeneration in the Basal Ganglia and brain stem leads to what?
Multi System atrophy
Degeneration in the spinocerebellar region leads to what?
Degeneration in the motor neurones leads to what?
Motor Neurone Disease
What is dementia?
Pathological acquired and persistent generalised disturbance in higher mental function.
List some primary causes of dementia.
List some secondary causes of dementia.
Multi infarct dementia
Epidemiology of Alzheimer's
Most common dementia
What are some genetic risk causes of Alzhiemer's?
Amyloid Precursor Protein
Presenilin 1 and 2
In what condition is there an increased risk of Alzhiemer's?
Trisomy 21 - Down syndrome
Presence of Amyloid Precursor Protein
What is the cause of death in most Alzheimer's cases?
Secondary cause due to insidious impairment of higher function
What does the brain of someone with Alzheimer's look like?
Decreased size and weight
Cortical Atrophy - Frontotemporal and Parietal
Compensatory ventricle dilation
Compensated ventricular dilation is a cause of what in Alzheimers?
On a microscopic level what does the brain tissue of someone with Alzheimer's show?
Simple neuronal atrophy
What are neurofibrillary tangles?
Microtubules within the cytoplasm contain Tau proteins
What make neuritic plaques?
Aβ amyloid plaques
What produces Aβ amyloid?
Cleavage of the Amyloid precursor protein
Describe the clinical presentation and history of someone with levy body dementia.
Fluctuating levels of attention/cognition
Late onset memory loss
Motor features of Parkinsonism
Conditions affecting where in the brain will result in Parkinsonism?
Nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathways
What are lewy bodies?
Eosinophilic dense body surrounded by a halo of radiating fibrils
What causes lewy body dementia?
Degeneration of substantia nigra
Dopaminergic pathways are broken down
The brain of someone with lewy body dementia will show.
Pallor where pigmented substantia nigra was located.
What is hunitingtons disease?
Inherited Autosomal dominant disease leading to rapidly progressive motor and cognitive disturbances.
What are the main symptoms of Huntington's?
Dementia later on
How many CAG repeats are present in normal population?
How many CAG repeats are present when the disease is expressed?
What regions of the brain undergo atrophy? HD
On a microscopic level how are the tissues of the brain affected by Huntingtons?
Neuronal atrophy of striatal neurones within Basal ganglia
Loss of striatal neurones within basal ganglia results in what?
Loss of motor inhibition