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Flashcards in CSF and Raised ICP Deck (26)
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1

Where is CSF produced?

Choroid plexus

2

Where is CSF absorbed?

Arachnoid complex

3

What is hydrocephalus?

Increased CSF resulting in an increased ICP.

4

What are the three causes of hydrocephalus?

Obstruction
Decreased Resorption
Overproduction

5

List some causes of obstructive hydrocephalus.

Inflammation
Pus
Tumours

6

List some causes of decreased resorption of CSF

Post SAH Sub Arachnoid Haemorrhage
Meningitis

7

List some causes of overproduction of CSF.

Very rare tumour affecting the choroid plexus.

8

What are the two types of hyrdocephalus?

Non communicating
Communicating

9

What is non communicating hydrocephalus?

Obstruction within the ventricular system
Within ventricles or aqueduct etc

10

What is communicating hydrocephalus?

Obstruction out-with the ventricular system

11

List some examples of causative agents of communicating hydrocephalus.

Sub arachnoid haemorrhage
Bacterial Meningitis

12

What is Hydrocephalus ex vacuo

Loss of the brain parenchyma in order to accommodate increased CSF

13

A brain with hydrocephalus ex vacuo will appear like?

Dilated ventricles

14

Give some examples of conditions that might result in hydrocephalus ex vacuo.

Severe dementia
Alzheimer's

15

Give some causes of an increased ICP.

Space occupying lesion
diffuse lesion (oedema)
Increased Venous Volume
Hypoxia
Hypercapnia

16

What are the main affects of a raised ICP?

Midline shift
Pressure on cranial nerves
Reduced Cerebral blood pressure
Herniation

17

A subfalcine herniation is what?

Cerebral hemisphere displaces under the falx cerebri

18

A subfalcine herniation commonly presents as....

Weakness in contralateral leg

19

A tentorial herniation is what?

Temporal lobe if forced below the tentorial cerebri

20

What is tentorial herniation also known as?

Uncal

21

A uncal/tentorial herniation presents as what?

Pupilliary dilation - lack of response to light
Loss of ocular movement ipsilaterally

22

A cerebellar herniation is what?

Cerebellum is forced down through foramen magnum

23

Why is a cerebellar herniation so often fatal?

Compression of vital respiratory centres

24

A raised ICP commonly presents with....

Papilloedema
Headache
N+V
Neck Stiffness
Reduced Consciousness

25

If hydrocephalus occurs before closing of the cranial sutures what happens?

Cranial enlargement to accommodate increased CSF

26

A brain affected by hydrocephalus looks like.

Flattened gyri and full sulci