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Flashcards in Basal Ganglia Deck (15)
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List the main components of the basal ganglia.

Striatum - Caudate ad Putamen
Globus Pallidus - External and Internal
Sub Thalamic Nucleus
Substantia Nigra - Pars Compacta Pars Reticulata


The direct pathway of the Basal Ganglia is intrinsic in what?

The initiation of movement


The first step in the direct pathway is what?

The cerebral cortex releases glutamate into the striatum..


An activated striatum does what?
Direct Pathway

Releases GABA
Inhibits the Globus Pallidus Interna and Substantia Nigra Pars Reticula.


What is the function of an uninhibited Globus Pallidus Internal and substantia nigra pars reticula?
Direct Pathway

Release GABA into the thalamus suppressing movement.


As a result of GABA being released into the Globus Pallidus Interna and Substantia Nigra Pars Reticula what happens.
Direct Pathway

The two components are inhibited so less GABA is released in to the thalamus so it is activated.


An uninhibited thalamus does what?
Direct Pathway

Release Excitatory Glutamate to initiate movement.


What is the function of the Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta.

Modulates the indirect system - antagonist to the direct.


Draw the Direct Basal Ganglia Pathway



What does the SN Pars Compacta release into the striatum.



Indirect Pathway
The release of dopamine from where into the striatum does what?

SN Pars Compacta
Increases the release of GABA.


Indirect Pathway.
Release of GABA into the where results in no inhibition of the Subthalamic Nuclei

GABA released from Striatum means that the Globus Pallidus Externa is inhibited so can't release inhibitory GABA into the Subthalamic nuclei.


As a result of the activation of the striatum by dopamine release what happens directly between the cerebral cortex and the sub thalamic nuclei?
Indirect Pathway

Cerebral Cortex excites the Subthalamic nuclei which excite the GABA neurones in the Globus Pallidus Interna and the Substantia Nigra Reticula.


Activation of the GABA neurones in the Substantia NIgra Reticula and the Globus Pallidus Interna does what?
Indirect Pathway

Inhibition of the thalamus
Inhibits Movement


Loss if the Substantia Nigra results in what disease and why?

Parkinsons - unable to inhibit movement.