Tumours of the CNS Flashcards Preview

Clinical symposium > Tumours of the CNS > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tumours of the CNS Deck (47):
1

what are the most common CNS tumours

gliomas, meningiomas

2

what is the occurrence distribution of tumours of the nervous system

age distribution is bimodal


Adults: cerebrum, glioma and menigioma.

3

where are tumours commonly found in children in the cerebrum or cerebellum

cerbellum (PNET and medullablastoma)

4

where are tumours commonly found in adults in the cerebrum or cerebellum

Glioma and Meningioma

5

do males have a increased risk of glioma or meningioma

glioma

6

do females have an increased risk of glioma and meningioma

meningioma

7

are neuronal tumours common or rare

rare

8

Do neurones communicate with the blood supply

no

9

how many astrocytes are there per neurone

10 astrocytes

10

define astrocyte

support and protect
connect neurones with blood supply so that they can access the metabolites they need to function.

11

define oligodendrocyte

myelin- insulate neurones

12

define ependymal cells and choroid plexus cells (CSF)

produce CSF
protect brain from trauma
control external environment

13

define micoglia defense

comes from bone arrow
sends astrocytes signal so that inflammatory cells can enter the blood brain barrier.

14

what are the 4 types of glial cells (support cells)

astrocytes
oligodendrocytes
ependymal cells and choroid plexus
micoglial cells (defense)

15

what is tumour of the neurone known as

ganglioma

16

what is tumour of the glial cells known as

glioma

17

what is tumour of the meninges known as

meningioma

18

how many layers is the cerebrum

6 layers

19

how many layers is the cerebellum

3 layers

20

how are CNS tumours diagnosed

Histology- name of tumour
biological behaviour- grade of the tumour.

21

do you have micoglial tumours

No

22

what are the characteristic features of a benign tumour

slow growing
respect surrounding tissue
no/ slow progression
no recurrence
surgery -depends on postion

23

what are the characteristic features of a malignant tumour

rapid growing
invade and destroy surrounding tissue
progress
recurrent
surgery and adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy and chemotherapy)

24

what grade are benign tumours

grade 1

25

are all graded tumours malignant

No
grade one can be benign.

26

what histological changes are present in a malignant tumour

cell size and shape
mitotic activity
Necrosis-TNF to kill other cells
vascular proliferation- increase endothelial cells to supply tumour.

27

what are the 3 types of gliomas

Astrocytic tumours
Oligodendroglioma
Ependymoma

28

what are the 2 types of nerve sheath tumours

Schwannoma and neurofibroma

29

Microscopical features of astrocytic tumours

Fine fibrillary and microcystic background
Increased cellular density
Pleomorphism ( variation in size, shape and chromasia)

30

what are the features of diffuse astrocytoma II

infiltrative, micro cystic fibrillary,
low cellular density
mild atypia
no mitotic activity- grade 2

31

what are the features of Anaplastic astrocytoma III

Moderate cellular density
Moderate Pleomorphism
Mitoses - grade 3

32

what are the features of glioblastoma

High cellular density and mitoses
Vascular proliferation
Necrosis
Histology- necrosis occurring in the centre and tumour cells are trying to escape

33

is the men age for developing glioblastma younger or older than anapaestic astrocytoma

older

34

what are the features of pilocytic astrocytoma

Children, cerebellum
Well-defined, cystic
Pilocytes
Rosenthal fibres
Vascular proliferation

35

what are the features of oligodendroglioma II/III

Round uniform nuclei with clear cytoplasm (fried-egg appearance)
Arborising capillaries (chicken wire)
Calcifications

36

what are the main features of Ependymoma II / III

Well-defined tumour, ventricles
Pseudorosettes
Round small uniform cells

37

what are the main features on meningioma

Females, dura, adults
Well-defined extra-axial tumour
Whorls, psammoma bodies
Histology- tumour cells whirl around each other.

38

what are the main features of PNET

Children, cerebellum
Very high cellular density- no cytoplasm seen in histology.
Anaplastic hyperchromatic cells
Frequent mitoses and apoptosis
Rosette formation

39

what are the main features of

Spindle-cell tumours
Schwannoma I
– 8th cranial nerve
– Biphasic pattern: loose and dense areas
– Reticulin rich
Neurofibroma I
– Spinal nerves
– Rich in collagen

40

what causes meningioma

radiotherapy

41

what causes lymphoma

immunosupression

42

what causes familial syndromes

NF1, NF2

43

Mutations in any of Wnt 7, SHH and notch leads to what

tumours.

44

MGMT promoter methylation is a predictive marker of which type of CNS tumour to akylating chemotherapy

glioblastomas

45

1p/19q deletion is a predicative marker of n prognosis of what CNS tumour is patients receiving adjuvant radio and/ or chemotherapy.

(oligodendro)glial tumor

46

What CNS tumours are IDH1/IDH2 mutations a diagnostic marker for

II and III gliomas as well as secondary glioblastomas

47

What CNS tumours use BRAF duplication/fusion to determine the diagnosis of tumours.

Diagnostic marker for pilocytic astrocytomas, helpful to distinguish these from diffuse astrocytomas