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Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (27)
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1

Reasons for selecting target behavior

Helps individual achieve outcomes.Behavior deficit makes the person too dependent on others.

2

Problems with behavior

Can’t Do: Skill Deficit Problem with strength
Won’t do Does, but only under limited circumstances
Does at the wrong time or in the wrong place

3

Adaptive behavior

Those skills or abilities that enable the individual to meet standards of personal independence and responsibility that would be expected of his or her age and social group

4

Mastered tasks

Tasks for which the person has met the performance criteria set for the specific task within specific conditions

5

Examples of Assessments used to identify skills to target for acquisition

VB-MAPPEssential for LivingThe MOVE Curriculum

6

Discriminative stimulus

Antecedent stimulus correlated with the availability of reinforcement. Stimulusthat should, after teaching, evoke the correct or an appropriate response.

7

Motivating operations

Antecedents that may temporarily increase or decrease the value of a consequence. They can be used to evoke a correct or appropriate response.

8

Using negative reinforcement

Identify aversive stimuli/conditions
Collect baseline data
Remove the aversive condition contingent upon the target response
Continue to collect data

9

Variable schedules

Consequence delivered after some number of responses, time or interval. Typically used to maintain behavior over time

10

Prompts are used

In skill acquisition programs
To evoke a low-probability behavior
To evoke a chain of behavior by prompting the first step (response priming)To prompt behaviors incompatiblewith an inappropriate behavior

11

Procedures for fading response prompts

Most-to-least prompts (fading out)Least-to-most prompts (fading in)Time delay (constant or progressive)Graduated guidance

12

Multiple response skill

Requires breaking down the skill into multiple steps or responses to effectively teach it

13

Differential reinforcement

Providing a reinforcer when the correct or an appropriate response occurs and not doing so when it does not occur or another response occurs

14

Prompt fading

When the correct or an appropriate response begins to occur, gradually provide less prompts and an additional level of differential reinforcement

15

Shaping

Using differential reinforcement to produce a series of gradual changing response classes. Reinforcement is provided when closer approximations to the correct response occurs

16

Stimulus fading

Highlighting a physical dimension (e.g., color, size, position) of a stimulus to increase the likelihood of a correct response

17

Effects of stimulus fading on problem behavior

Functions as an abolishing operation and abates problem behavior
Evokes appropriate behavior

18

Stimulus shape transformations

Use an initial stimulus shape that will prompt a correct response

19

Task analysis

Breaking down a chain into its component responses

20

Developing a TA

Perform the task or watch someone perform the taskWrite down each individual step in sequencePerform or have someone perform a task according to the steps listed

21

Types of chaining procedures

Backward chaining
Backward chaining with leaps ahead
Forward chaining
Total task chaining

22

Forward chaining

The responses in the chain are taught, one at a time, in the same order as they naturally occur

23

Backward chaining

The responses in the chain are taught, one at a time, but beginning with the last step in the chain

24

Advantages of backwards chaining

The learner contacts the natural reinforcement contingencies in every learning trial

25

Backward chaining with leaps ahead

Same as backward chaining except some steps are skipped and probed instead

26

Advantage of backward chaining with leaps ahead

May reduce training time

27

Procedures for Teaching Response Chains

Chaining
Modeling
Instructions(oral/written) Behavioral Skills Training