Flashcards in Unit 1: Glossary Deck (56):
An increase in a measurable quantity.
E.G. Height or weight.
Complex changes in skills and capabilities that an individual experiences as they grow.
Genetic inheritance and other biological factors.
The influence of external factors after conception such as social and environmental factors.
A genetically programmed sequence of change.
For example: the onset of the menopause.
Define positive reinforcement
The behaviour is repeated because of personal satisfaction (intrinsic reinforcement) or rewards (extrinsic reinforcement).
Define negative reinforcement
The behaviour is not repeated to avoid an adverse experience such as lack of satisfaction or to avoid being told off.
A predisposition or vulnerability to mental disorder through abnormality of the brain or neurotransmitters.`
Define genetic predisposition
Inherited genes that determine physical growth, development, health and appearance.
Define centiles lines
Lines on a graph used to show average measurement of height, weight and head circumference.
The lines represent the values of the measurements taking into account age and sex.
Define development norms
A description of an average set of expectations with respect to a young child's development.
For example: By the age of 12 months, a child has the ability to stand alone.
An ability achieved by most children by a certain age.
It can involve physical, social, emotional cognitive and communication skills.
For example: Walking, sharing with others, expressing emotions, recognising familiar sounds and talking.
Define gross motor skills
Large movements that involve using the large muscles of the body, which are required for mobility.
For example: Rolling over.
Define fine motor skills
Smaller movements that require more precise direction (dexterity) and use of smaller muscles.
For example: Picking up a pencil.
An important status change following the onset of puberty during which a young person develops from a child into an adult.
A period of rapid growth during which young people reach sexual maturity and become biologically able to reproduce and secondary sexual characteristics develop.`
Chemical substances produced in the body and transported in the bloodstream that control or regulate body cells or body organs.
For example: Sex hormones produced by the ovaries and testes are responsible for the development for the development of sexual characteristics in puberty.
The ending of female fertility, including the cessation of menstruation and reduction in production of female sex hormones.
Define life expectancy
An estimate of the number of years, on average, that a person can expect to live.
This is sometimes referred to as longevity.
Define cognitive impairment
When a person has trouble remembering, learning new skills, concentrating or making decisions that affect their everyday life.
Define abstract logical thinking
The ability to solve problems using imagination without having to be involved practically.
This is an advanced form of thinking that does not always need a practical context in order to take place.
Define egocentric thinking
Not being able to see a situation from another person's point of view.
Piaget thought that a young child assumed that other people see, hear and feel exactly the same as the child does.
Define concrete logical thinking
The ability to solve problems providing an individual can see or physically handle the issues involved.
A state of cognitive balance when a child's experience is in line with what they understand.
Modifying schemas (concepts) in relation to new information and experiences.
Define emotional literacy
The ability to recognise, understand and appropriately express emotions.
Emotional literacy is essential for forming positive social relationships.
The ability to identify with or understand another's situation or feelings.
A strong emotional connection between a child and caregiver.
The way an individual sees themselves, their mental image of themselves.
How a person feels about themselves, self-worth or pride.
An awareness formed in early childhood of being an individual, a unique person and different from everyone else.
Being deprived of a caregiver to whom an attachment already exists.
Being deprived of the opportunity to form an attachment.
Define separation anxiety
The fear and apprehension that infants experience when separated from their primary caregiver.
Define stranger anxiety
When an infant becomes anxious and fearful around strangers.
An increased likelihood of acquiring a disease because of an individual's genetic makeup.
Present at birth.
Define neural tube defects
Congenital defects of the brain, spine or spinal cord.
For example: Spina bifida.
A substance that contaminates something such as air or water and may make it unsafe.
Define respiratory disorders
Conditions affecting the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity.
Define cardiovascular problems
Any disorder or disease of the heart of blood vessels.
A state of cognitive imbalance between experience and what is understood.
Excessively low body temperature below 35°C (normal body temperature is 37°C).
Define dysfunctional family
A family that is not providing all of the support and benefits associated with being in a family.
Define parenting styles
A definition of the different strategies/ ways that parents use to bring up their children.
The middle value in a list of numbers written in numerical order.
For example: 5 is the median of 2, 3, 3, 5, 9, 9, 11.
Assumptions that we use to make sense of out social experience.
Define secondary socialisation
The process of learning appropriate behaviour in society.
Influences include education, media, government and religion/ culture.
Define primary socialisation
The process of a child learning the norms, attitudes and values of the culture and society in which they are growing up.
Principles that we use to guide our thoughts and decisions.
How a person spends their time and money, a 'style' of living.
Define predictable events
Events that are expected to happen at a particular time. While expected they may have a positive or negative effect on a person's health and wellbeing.
Define unpredictable events
Events that happen unexpectedly and which may have serious physical and psychological effects on the individual. These effects can be positive or negative.
The soft tissue that protects the surfaces of the bone.
Define vascular dementia
Symptoms include problems with language, memory and thought processes caused by problems in the blood supply to the bain.
For example: Through stroke.