Flashcards in Unit 1: Learning Aim C Deck (59):
What is atherosclerosis?
Caused by a blockage from fatty deposits.
Restricts the artery and stops oxygen from getting to the heart cells and muscles.
This restricts respiration and the function of the heart because it has less energy.
Meaning that it can’t pump blood to the cells and tissue, which causes cell death.
What is the name given to nervous cells?
What is the function of nerve cells?
Transmit impulses relaying signals.
What is the function of the fatty sheath?
Insulation to allow the impulses to travel faster.
What are the 2 main parts of the nervous system?
Central nervous system (CNS)
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
What makes up the peripheral nervous system?
Motory and sensory.
What is the synapse?
A gap between 2 neurons.
What is a drug that affects the synapse?
It blocks the receptors.
What are 4 changes in the heart with ageing?
1. Heart may increase in size, causing the heart wall to thicken, making it more difficult for the heart muscles to relax and fill out with blood between beats.
2. Artery walls narrow due to clogging by fats called cholesterol, preventing blood from passing easily.
3. Pacemaker cells decrease, causing problems in the rhythm in the heart.
4. The valves inside the heart that control the flow of blood thicken and become stiffer.
What are negative effects of cardiovascular disease in later life?
Loss of independence.
Anxiety about health.
Loss of opportunity to develop new friends.
What are positive effects of cardiovascular disease in later life?
Closer relationships with family members and friends.
Choosing to improve lifestyle.
What does the degeneration of nervous tissue cause?
Increase in time taken to react.
Reduction in reflexes and movement.
Effects on senses.
Decline in verbal capability.
Difficulty in receiving and processing information.
Decline in short term memory.
What are the 4 senses that are affected by age?
What happens to the taste sense with age?
The number of taste buds decreases, reducing the enjoyment of food --> poor diet.
Production of saliva decreases, affecting taste and enjoyment of food.
The ability to smell decreases, reducing the ability to detect dangerous odours (fumes or food that has gone off).
What can a decrease in the number of receptor cells in older age lead to?
Reduced sensitivity to temperature, which can lead to burns, frostbite and hypothermia.
Reduced sensitivity to injury --> untreated pressure on sores and ulcers.
Increased sensitivity to touch --> bruising.
Skin becoming more sensitive --> sunburn or skin cancer.
What happens to sight with age?
Vision becomes less sharp.
Cataracts may develop --> cloudiness in vision.
The vitreous (gel-like substance) in the eye starts to shrink --> floaters.
Peripheral vision deteriorates.
Eye muscles become weaker, reducing the field of vision.
Pupils react more slowly in bright light or darkness.
Increased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) --> gradual loss of sight.
What happens to hearing with age?
Fluid-filled tubes in the inner ear, which help to maintain balance, become affected --> dizziness and falls.
Ability to hear high frequency sounds deteriorates.
Distinguishing between sounds is more difficult.
Tinnitus (persistent noise) is experienced because of build up of wax or damage to the ear.
What are the physical effects of osteoarthritis?
Swelling and pain in joints.
Damage to the soft tissue around joints.
Difficulty in walking.
Difficulty in climbing stairs.
What increases the risk of osteoarthritis?
Injury to joints.
Being over 40 years old.
What are some effects of early stage Alzheimer's?
Decline in short term memory.
Difficulty completing routine tasks.
Impairment in thinking/ problem solving.
What are some effects of later stage Alzheimer's?
Lack of judgement.
Changes in behaviour.
What are some effects of the final stage of Alzheimer's?
Unable to recognise family members.
Unable to feed or care for self.
Lack of control of bodily functions.
Almost total loss of memory.
What support do patients with early stage Alzheimer's need?
Informal help with everyday tasks.
What support do patients with later stage Alzheimer's need?
Community/ specialist nurse visits.
Support in the home with personal care.
What support do patients with final stage of Alzheimer's need?
Residential/ hospice care.
Personal/ continence care.
What physical effects can illness cause?
Make the body less able to fight infection.
Result in lost mobility.
Pain and discomfort.
Impact on senses, making them less sharp.
Affect vision and causes dizziness that could lead to falls.
What intellectual effects can illness cause?
Short term memory loss.
Affect decision making skills.
Slow the ability to respond and react to information.
Difficulty in verbal communication.
What social effects can illness cause?
Reduce the opportunity and ability to socialise with friends.
Impact on senses or neural capacity, making socialising difficult.
Affect ability to communicate in groups.
What emotional effects can illness cause?
Emotional distress (incontinence, communication difficulties).
Dependence on others for personal care.
Feelings of lack of control.
Bring families closer together.
Low self esteem.
How could a healthy diet improve or exacerbate the impact of ill health on older people?
Provides the additional nutrients needed to reduce a decline in health.
Maintains a healthy weight to reduce stress on the heart and other organs.
How could drugs improve or exacerbate the impact of ill health on older people?
Medication that is prescribes correctly should control illness and not make it worse.
Not smoking reduces the impact of age-related disease.
Taking recreational drugs can negatively affect intellectual development and mood.
How could exercise improve or exacerbate the impact of ill health on older people?
Maintains muscle and strength.
Keeps the joints mobile.
Keeps the heart healthy.
What effects could loss of job and status have on older people?
Retirement may reduce self esteem because of a feeling of lack of purpose.
Increases leisure time and opportunities to try new things.
E.G. Travel, enjoy grandchildren and hobbies.
What effects could losing own home have on older people?
Contentment and security when forced to move (into smaller house, in with family or into residential care).
What effects could death of a partner/ friends have on older people?
Grief can cause a loss of sense of safety and security.
Loss of intimacy.
What effects could reduced access to social networks have on older people?
Difficulty in meeting and taking part in social activity can prevent development of the brain.
Cause or worsen depression and other mental conditions.
What effects could loss of independence have on older people?
Reliance on others increases a feeling of helplessness.
What effects could reduced mobility/ fitness have on older people?
Inability to move around and continue to carry out physical tasks can result in cognitive decline and reduce wellbeing.
How can culture, religion and beliefs have a positive impact on ageing?
Individuals feel part of a group or community, so less isolated.
Beliefs help people to make sense of their ageing and come to terms with mortality.
Some cultures and religions place more value on older people.
What is the activity theory?
Individuals can achieve healthy ageing through continued social activity.
What is the social disengagement theory?
A reduction in social contact is natural in older age.
What is the activity theory based on the beliefs of?
The social and psychological needs of individuals remain the same.
People need activity and social interactions.
Individuals adjust to their declining health and mobility and/ or strength.
People continue to involve themselves in the community.
What is the social disengagement theory based on the beliefs of?
People naturally withdraw from social contact in older age.
Society withdraws from older people.
People focus on their previous life and activities.
Family expects less from older people.
Older people become more dependent.
Ageing can result in tranquility and be a positive development.
What is acute care?
Meeting immediate health needs.
E.G. Broken hips, heart attacks.
What is healthcare?
Medication, support for long term conditions, palliative care, continence care, specialist nursing/ units.
What is social care?
Own home, day care or residential, assessing needs, supporting independence, personal care, day-to-day care, respite care.
What is community equipment?
Keeping people mobile and independent in their own home.
E.G. Mobility aids, aids for daily living.
What is psychological care?
Counsellors, mental health nursing.
What is benefits and entitlements?
Adaptions to home, transport to and from appointments, financial support.
What is en-of-life care?
Pain relief, psychological support.
How are older people helped to stay healthy?
Health monitoring and screening.
Winter fuel and cold weather payments.
Provision of social and leisure activities.
Rehabilitation after stay in hospital.
What is formal health care?
Statutory, private, voluntary.
What is informal health care?
Provided by family, community or religious groups.
What are the impacts of a higher percentage of older people on health and welfare?
Older people already use more health and care services.
A rise in numbers means a higher demand and increased costs.
What are the impacts of a higher percentage of older people on pension costs?
More people receive a state pension, leaving less money for economic investments.
What are the impacts of a higher percentage of older people on employment?
More retired people means a shortage of skilled workers.
There are changed to working patterns as older people work part time.
What are the impacts of a higher percentage of older people on housing?
More retirement homes and sheltered housing are required.
People stay in their homes longer so fewer larger homes are available for families.
How has the government responded to these economic changes?
Raising the retirement age.
Making it easier for older people to stay in work and/ or work part time.
Encouraging people in work to take out private pensions.
Increasing taxes to pay for state pensions and welfare.