Flashcards in Unit 1: Learning Aim A Deck (56):
What key features of physical development occur at Infancy (0-2 years)?
Rapid growth, reaching half their adult height by 2.
Around 1, infants can walk and by 2 they can run.
12-13 months they can stand alone without help.
6 months they can roll over and sit up for a short time unaided and kick legs when held up.
3 months they can lift their head and chest when lying on their front.
1 month can have some control of the head, lifting chin.
What key features of physical development occur at Childhood (3-8 years)?
Children continue to grow at a steady pace.
Continue to develop strength and coordination.
3 years they can pedal a tricycle, run and balance on one foot.
4 years they can kick and throw.
5 years they can hop using each foot separately.
6/7 years they can ride a bike and skip.
What key features of physical development occur at Adolescence (9-18 years)?
Development of sexual characteristic during puberty.
The menstrual cycle begins with females.
Body fat is redistributed.
Hair growth, voice deepening, breast development.
What key features of physical development occur at Early Adulthood (19-45 years)?
Adults reach the peak of their physical fitness.
Full height and strength reached.
Manual dexterity at its peak.
After this, strength and speed begin to deteriorate.
What key features of physical development occur at Middle Adulthood (46-65 years)?
The ageing process begins with some loss of strength and stamina.
Women go through the menopause.
'Middle aged spread'.
Loss of skin elasticity.
What key features of physical development occur at Later Adulthood (65+ years)?
Ageing process continues.
Gradual loss of mobility.
Experiencing a loss of height up to a few centimetres.
Disease can occur due to changes in the organ system.
Begin to lose height and weight.
What are the principles of development?
From head to toe.
From the inside to the outside.
In the same sequence but at different rates.
What are the four main areas of skill acquisition?
What are the principles of growth?
What are the gross and fine motor skills at newborn?
Gross: Primitive reflexes (grasp).
Fine: Holds their thumbs tucked into their hands.
What are the gross and fine motor skills at 1 month?
Gross: Lifts chin, some control of the head.
Fine: Opens hands to grasp and finger.
What are the gross and fine motor skills at 3 months?
Gross: Can lift their head and chest when lying on front.
Fine: Can briefly grasp a rattle.
What are the gross and fine motor skills at 6 months?
Gross: Rolls over, sit up for a short time without support, kicks legs when held up.
Fine: Moves objects from hand to hand, can pick up dropped toys if they're in sight.
What are the gross and fine motor skills at 9-10 months?
Gross: Crawls, begins to walk while holding onto objects.
Fine: Uses finger and thumb to hold a small object.
What are the gross and fine motor skills at 12-13 months?
Gross: Stands alone, can walk without help.
Fine: Manipulates and places toys.
What are the gross and fine motor skills at 18 months?
Gross: Climbs onto furniture.
Fine: Builds a short tower with blocks.
What are the gross and fine motor skills at 2 years?
Gross: Propels a sit on toy with their feet, throws a large ball.
Fine: Draws lines and circles, turns a page.
What are the gross and fine motor skills at 2 and half years?
Gross: Jumps from a low step, kicks ball.
Fine: Uses a spoon and fork, builds a tower of 7-8 blocks.
What are the male and female primary sexual characteristics?
Male: Enlargement of penis and testes, spontaneous erections caused by blood flowing into chambers in the penis, testicles begin to produce spermatozoa, beginning of ejaculation.
Female: The uterus enlarges and the vagina lengthens, ovaries begin to release eggs, menstrual cycle commences.
What are the male and female secondary sexual characteristics?
Male: Changes in larynx (Adams apple) causing the voice to deepen, hair growth in armpits and pubic area, facial hair, redistribution of muscle tissue and fat.
Female: Breasts develop and the areola (the area around the nipple) swells and darkens, hair grows in armpits and pubic area, redistribution of body fat, causing hips to widen.
What are the key intellectual developments in infancy and early childhood?
Stages of rapid intellectual development.
What are the key intellectual developments in adolescence to early adulthood?
Development of logical thought, problem solving and memory recall skills.
What are the key intellectual developments in middle adulthood?
Can think through problems and make sound judgements using life experiences.
What are the key intellectual developments in later adulthood?
Changes in the brain can cause short term memory decline and slower thought processes and reaction times.
What are the key features of language development at 3 months?
Infants begin to make babbling noises as they learn to control the muscles associated with speech.
What are the key features of language development at 12 months?
Infants begin to imitate sounds made by carers such as 'da da'.
This develops into using single words.
What are the key features of language development at 2 years?
Infants begin to make 2 word sentences, such as 'cat goed'.
The infant begins to build their vocabulary.
What are the key features of language development at 3 years?
Children begin to make simple sentences, such as 'I want drink'.
This develops into the ability to ask questions, 'when we go?'.
Knowledge of words grows very rapidly.
What are the key features of language development at 4 years?
Children begin to use clear sentences that can be understood by strangers.
Children can be expected to make some mistakes with grammar, 'we met lots of peoples at the shops today'.
What are the key features of language development at 5 years?
Children can speak using full adult grammar.
Although vocabulary will continue to grow and formal grammar will continue to improve, most children can be expected to use language effectively by the age of 5.
What occurs in the sensorimotor stage (2 years)?
Infants think by interacting with the world using their eyes, ears, hands and mouth.
As a result, the infant invents ways of solving problems such as pulling a lever to hear the sound of a music box, finding hidden toys and putting objects into and taking them out of containers.
Piaget believed that a baby would not have a way of remembering and thinking about the world until they were about 18 months old.
What occurs at the preoperational stage (2-7 years)?
Children use symbols to represent their earlier sensorimotor discoveries.
Development of language and make believe play takes place.
Piaget believed that children at this stage cannot properly understand how ideas like number, mass and volume really work.
What occurs at the concrete operational stage (7-11 years)?
Children's reasoning becomes logical providing the issues are concrete.
In the concrete operational stage, children may be able to understand simple logical principles.
What occurs at the formal operational stage (11-18 years)?
This is when the capacity for abstract thinking allows adolescents to reason through symbols that do not refer to objects in the real world, as is required in advanced mathematics.
Young people can also think of possible outcomes of a scientific problem, not just the obvious ones.
Abstract thinking enables individuals to think through complicated ideas in their heads without having to see the concrete image.
What are the key features of emotional development at infancy?
Attachment: Bowlby argued that infants have an inbuilt need to form an attachment with a carer. Ainsworth argued that the quality of emotional development for the rest of their life can be affected by early attachments.
What are the key features of emotional development at early childhood?
Understanding of self and others: Children use their imagination to begin to understand the social roles that other people play. Children begin to imagine a 'me', an idea of self or self concept. Relationships with other family members may influence whether a child feels valued or has a sense of self worth. The way a child gets on with teachers and friends may influence their self confidence. The child might develop a permanent sense of self confidence or a sense of failure and inferiority.
What are the key features of emotional development at adolescence?
Identity: During adolescence, this sense of self continues to develop. An adolescent needs to develop a secure self concept. A person needs a clear understand of identity in order to feel secure when working with other people or in order to make a loving sexual attachment. This may be a stressful time as self esteem may depend on developing identity.
What are the key features of emotional development at early and middle adulthood?
Intimacy: In adulthood, an individual's self esteem is influenced by lifestyle such as their job or marital status. Self image is affected by personal appearance and how others see you. Individuals need to learn to cope with emotional attachment to a sexual partner. This may involve not being too self centred or defensive and not becoming emotionally isolated.
What are the key features of emotional development at later adulthood?
Making sense of your life: Older people need a secure sense of self to enable them to cope with the physical changes associated with ageing and death. People who fail to make sense of their lives might experience emotional despair.
What are Schaffer and Emerson's sequence of attachment for up to 3 months?
Most babies respond indiscriminately to any caregiver.
What are Schaffer and Emerson's sequence of attachment for 3-7 months?
Infants can distinguish the difference between their main caregiver and other people.
The infant will accept care from other people.
What are Schaffer and Emerson's sequence of attachment for 7-9 months?
This is when the infant looks to particular people for security comfort and protection.
The baby shows fear of strangers and unhappiness when separated from their main caregiver.
Some infants are more likely to display fear of strangers and stranger anxiety than others.
What are Schaffer and Emerson's sequence of attachment for 9+ months?
The baby starts to become more independent and forms several attachments, referred to as multiple attachments.
What are the developments of self esteem at 0-18 months?
During infancy, babies start to build self esteem by having their basic needs met (closeness, love, comfort).
Babies gradually become aware that they are loved as their primary caregivers provide these needs.
This shows the infant that they are important, as well as safe and secure.
What are the developments of self esteem at 18 months-2 years?
Although infants have not yet developed a clear understanding of self esteem, every time they learn a new skill they begin to realise what they can achieve and begin to learn about themselves.
If infants are shown love by their primary caregivers and treated as special, this impacts on their self esteem.
Infants who feel unloved find it more difficult to develop a sense of self worth and to value themselves.
What are the description of play at the solo stage (0-1 year)?
Looks at adults closely, puts things into mouth and touches things with hands.
Plays alone with toys.
Gradually begins to play simple games.
What are the description of play at the solo stage (12-18 months)?
Begins to play and talk alone, repeats actions and starts to play with adults, notices other children.
What are the description of play at the parallel stage (18 months-2 years)?
Begins to enjoy repetitive actions, such as putting objects into and taking them out of boxes.
Begins to copy other children and adults.
Enjoys playing with adults as well as alone.
Learns to complete tasks through trial and error.
What are the description of play at the associative stage (3-4 years)?
Begins to play cooperatively with other children and starts to show reasoning skills by questions.
They join in pretend and fantasy games negotiating and taking on roles.
What are the description of play at the cooperative stage (4-6 years)?
Begins to use simple rules in games.
Plays cooperatively towards a shared goal and takes turns when playing table top games with other children.
What are the description of play at the cooperative stage (6-8 years)?
Begins to enjoy playing in small groups, making up own games and rules.
Enjoys understanding and using rules, but does not usually cope well with losing.
What are the features of social development at infancy?
Interacting with carers: Infants appear to have an inbuilt tendency to interact with carers.
By 2 months, they may start to smile at human faces.
At 3 months, they will respond when adults talk.
At 5 months, infants can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people.
Infants make they first relationships as they form an emotional attachment to carers.
What are the features of social development at childhood?
First social learning: Young children are emotionally attached and dependent on the adults that care for them.
Children begin to learn social roles and behaviour within their family context, providing a 'safe base' to explore social relationships with other children through play.
As they grow older they become increasingly independent and begin to form friendships based on a sense of mutual trust.
Children begin to form social networks (circles) of friends who like and agree with each other.
What are the features of social development at adolescence?
Secondary social learning: A person's self worth may be more influenced by their peers that by their family.
They copy styles of dress, beliefs, cultural values and behaviours of their networks of friends.
What are the features of social development at adulthood?
Maturity: During early adulthood, friendship networks continue to be very important.
Early adulthood is dominated by forming intimate partnerships and the need to find employment.
In middle adulthood individuals experience time pressures that may limit their social activity.
Mature adults may have to split their time between work, family and friends.