Unit 1: Learning Aim B Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1: Learning Aim B Deck (50):

What is cystic fibrosis?

It is caused by a faulty recessive gene thought to be carried by as many as 4% of the UK population that results in a defective protein being produced. This can cause the lungs to be clogged with sticky mucus, nurishment problems, respiratory problems and chest infections. It can be treated by various drugs to help control breathing.


What is brittle bone disease?

It may be passed from a parent, but can be due to a genetic mutation. A sufferer can experience breaking their bones more easily because their bones lack collagen. It can be treated with physiotherapy, assistive equipment and drugs to strengthen their bones.


What is phenylketonuria (PKU)?

Rare genetic disorder that prevents a child from breaking down phenylalanine that can be found in meat, milk and eggs. If it was eaten, there was a buildup of harmful substances in the body, which can damage brain development. It cannot be cured, but babies are screened for it at birth.


What is huntington's disease?

An inherited neurodegenerative genetic disorder that causes progressive damage to certain nerve cells in the brain. It can affect muscle coordination and cause mental decline and behavioural changes.


What is klinefelter syndrome?

Children that are born with an extra X chromosome after the baby is conceived, meaning that the condition is not inherited. This is shown in sufferers when they are slow reaching milestones, sitting up or walking, may have poor muscle control and delayed communication. Treatment is available for low testosterone levels.


What is down syndrome?

A genetic condition that occurs as a result of an extra chromosome, which can cause varying levels of learning disability, so it is generally not inherited. They do experience a higher incidence of depression due to this condition.


What is colour blindness?

Individuals have difficulty in distinguishing between colours, which is passed down through genetics due to inherited abnormalities in the retina. It can be experienced as a result of diabetes, age or multiple sclerosis.


What is duchenne muscular dystrophy?

A group of inherited genetic conditions that gradually weakens muscles that can lead to disability. It is caused by changes in the genes responsible for the structure and functioning of a person’s muscles. They can face severe health problems, especially by their late teens.


What is Gesell's maturation theory?

Focuses solely on how nature aids the development of characteristics.
Believed that: Development is genetically determined from birth.
Children follow the same orderly sequence in their development.
Pace of development may vary depending on physical and intellectual development.


What is Bandura's social learning theory?

Summarises that nurture alone affects the development of certain characteristics.
1. Attention.
2. Retention.
3. Reproduction.
4. Motivation.


What is the stress diathesis model?

Nature and nurture both affect the development of characteristics.
Nature = Diathesis: Predisposition to mental disorders due to an abnormality in the brain.
Nurture = Stresses: Traumatic events in a person's life.


What is cancer?

Uncontrolled cell growth.
Often caused by environmental and lifestyle factors.
Some inherited genes/ gene faults increase risks of developing cancer.
For example: Breast, Bowel, Womb, Kidney.


What is diabetes?

Type 1: Body does not produce insulin.
Type 2: Body stops responding to insulin.
Environmental factors play a role in developing type 2 diabetes.
Predisposition to both type 1 and type 2.


What is high blood cholesterol?

Too much cholesterol in the body.
Lifestyle factors increase risk.
For example: Unhealthy diet, Smoking, Lack of exercise, Familial hypercholesterolaemia.


What are biological factors that can affect the development of an organism?

Mother's poor lifestyle when she's pregnant.
Poor diet.
Drug use.
Alcohol use.


What are the effects of poor lifestyle during pregnancy on a child?

Low birth rate.
Premature birth.
Long term health problems.
Learning disabilities.
Developmental decay.
Congenital defects.


What can maternal infections cause in a child?

Health problems.
Still birth.


What problems can foetal alcohol syndrome cause in a child?

Small head circumference.
Neurological problems.
Abnormal growth.
Developmental delay.
Facial abnormalities.


What factors can contribute to congenital abnormalities?

Genetic E.G. Down's syndrome.
Nutritional E.G. Deficiency in folate, which increases the risk of neural tube defect (spina bifida).
Environmental E.G. Maternal exposure to pesticides, chemicals, radiation or alcohol or tobacco, causing abnormal growth.
Infections E.G. Rubella, which could result in deafness and health problems.


What factors can affect human growth and development?

Life events.


What conditions are caused by pollutants?

Respiratory disorders: Bronchitis, asthma, emphysema, lung cancer.
Cardiovascular problems: Artery blockage, heart attack.
Allergies: Wheezing, rashes, allergic rhinitis, anaphylactic shock.


Why is pollution harmful to the body?

Pollutants are taken into the body via the nose and mouth or through the skin.


What are the possible effects of housing conditions?

Poor ventilation/ damp and mould: Respiratory disorders.
Overcrowding: Anxiety/ depression.
Inadequate heating: Hypothermia.
Lack of outdoor space: Cardiovascular problems.
Poor sanitation/ vermin: Risk of infection.


What are the three parenting styles as identified by Diana Baumrind?

1. Authoritative.
2. Authoritarian.
3. Permissive.


What is the authoritative parenting style?

Parents are not overly strict.
Children are brought up to respect authority and develop appropriate values and boundaries.
Children are often more resilient and conform more easily to the social norms of society.


What is the authoritarian parenting style?

Parents have very high expectations, often overwhelming their children with strict rules and regulations.
Children are often rebellious and may become problematic both in the family home and in wider social settings.


What is the permissive parenting style?

Parents make few demands, and may be reluctant to implement rules or values into the lives of their children.
Children often lack a sense of self control as they have no set boundaries or respect for personal space.
They may later experience problems in managing relationships and adult responsibilities.


What are characteristics of a dysfunctional family?

Members do not carry out their responsibilities.
Needs of family members are not met.
Displays of negativity towards each other.
Sibling rivalry and conflict.
Abuse may happen.
Use of coercion and blame.


What are some reasons for dysfunctional families?

Parents perpetuate their own dysfunctional upbringing.
Untreated mental illnesses in one of more family members.
Alcohol or drug abuse by one or more members of the family.


What are some short term effects of bullying?

Stress/ anxiety.
Poor self image.
Low self esteem.
Eating disorders.
Withdrawal from school, work and activities.
Inability to cope with life events.


What are some long term effects of bullying?

Difficulties in forming relationships.
Poor academic achievement.
Substance misuse.
Self harm.
Increased risk of suicide.


What are examples of dietary restrictions?

Religions forbidding the consumption of certain foods.
E.G. Shellfish for Jewish, pork for Muslims, Buddhists and Hindus are vegetarian.


What are possible health benefits of dietary restrictions?

High fibre and/or low fat diets = lower risk of high cholesterol, heart disease and high blood pressure.
Reduced risk of cancers and heart disease if alcohol or stimulants are restricted.


What are possible health risks of dietary restrictions?

Nutritional deficiencies.
E.G. Lack of calcium (bones and teeth), iron and vitamin B12 (for red blood cells), vitamin D (for healthy bone growth) and protein (for maintenance of muscles, organs, skin and bones).


What are some examples of fasting?

Several religions have periods of fasting.
E.G. Muslims during Ramadan, Jewish for several days in the year and Mormons on the first Sunday of each month.


What are possible health benefits of fasting?

Loss of weight, reduced cholesterol levels, detoxification.


What are possible health risks of fasting?

Heartburn, constipation, malnourishment, dehydration, exacerbation of existing conditions (diabetes and stress).


What are some examples of medical intervention?

Christian scientists believe in healing through prayer and Jehovah's Witnesses do not receive blood transfusions.


What are possible health risks of medical intervention?

Deterioration to health and possible death.


What are 2 positive and 2 negative physical economic factors?

Positive: Manual/ active jobs improve muscle tone and stamina. Lifestyle: being able to afford a healthy diet and regular exercise to keep digestive systems, circulatory systems and joints healthy.
Negative: Manual jobs may cause muscular and skeletal problems. Sedentary/ desk based jobs can cause back problems, RSI, lack of fitness and increased risk of joint problems and heart attack.


What are 2 positive and 2 negative intellectual economic factors?

Positive: Being in work, education or training promotes creative thinking and problem solving skills. Being able to afford a good diet and exercise can promote cognitive development.
Negative: Being out of work, retired or in a non-demanding job may cause deterioration of memory and problem solving skills. Low income and a low quality lifestyle can lead to stress and loss of concentration.


What are 2 positive and 3 negative emotional economic factors?

Positive: Being in a high status job and having a good income and education may lead to high self image and positive self esteem. Having an adequate income and job provides opportunities and independence.
Negative: Being unemployed may lead to poor lifestyle choices, negative self image and low self esteem. Low income may lead to lack of choice and independence. Concerns about lack of work or finances can lead to stress.


What are 2 positive and 2 negative social economic factors?

Positive: Being at school, training or work provides opportunities to develop friendships. Being able to afford a healthy lifestyle can lead to friendships.
Negative: Low income or unemployment offers fewer opportunities for building relationships. Poor lifestyle may lead to breakdown in relationships.


What are predictable life events?

Life events that are likely to happen to most people (starting school or work).
They can be anticipated and prepared for.


What are unpredictable events?

Life events that are not expected (an accident or serious injury).
They happen with little or no warning so cannot be prepared for.


What is the Holmes and Rahe study?

1. Holmes and Rahe listed 43 life events that individuals may experience.
2. They applied a score to each life event, depending on the level of stress it would likely cause.
3. Patients were asked to indicate the life events they had experienced from the list.
4. Patients added up the scores from their life events.


What did the Holmes and Race study find?

They found that there was a correlation between the number of units (the level and number of stressful events the individual experienced) and their illness.


What is positive reinforcement?

The behaviour is repeated because of personal satisfaction (intrinsic reinforcement) or rewards (extrinsic reinforcement).


What is negative reinforcement?

The behaviour is not repeated to avoid an adverse experience.
E.G. Lack of satisfaction or being told off.


What is vicarious reinforcement?

Children may be motivated because they see that the person or 'model' they observe is getting satisfaction or positive feedback.
Children may resist imitating the action because the model receives negative feedback from their action.