Unit 1 Lab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1 Lab Deck (155):
1

What are the four primary tissue types?

Epithelial Connective Muscular Neural

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How are Epithelia classified?

According to # of Layers (Simple or Stratified) Cell Shape

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What are the 3 Epithelial Cell Shapes?

Squamous Cuboidal Columnar

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Where are the Simple Squamous Epithelial cells located?

Lining of Ventral Cavities Lining of blood vessels Alveoli

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What is the function of Simple Squamous Epithelial Cells?

Nutrient and Gas Exchange Friction Reduction

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Where are stratified squamous Epithelial Cells located?

Skin Surface, Entrances/exits of body

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What is the function of Stratified Squamous Epithelial Cells?

Protection (against abrasion, pathogens, and chemicals)

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Where are Simple Cuboidal Epithelial Cells located?

Glands (Salivary, Pancreas, Thyroid) Kidney Tubules

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What is the function of Simple Cuboidal Epithelial Cells?

Secretion Absorption

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What is the location of Simple Columnar Epithelium

Many Excretory ducts Digestive System

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What is the function of Simple Columnar Epithelium

Secretion Absorption

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Pseudostratified Ciliated Epithelium

Respiratory Tract except for lungs

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Transitional Epithelium Location

Bladder, Ureters, Renal Pelvis

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Transitional Epithelium Function

Extreme Expansion and Recoil

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Transitional Epithelium Function

Extreme Expansion and Recoil

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what are the Connective Tissue Fibers?

Collagen, Reticular, Elastic

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What are the Structural Characteristics of Connective Tissue

Specialized Cells Matrix (Proteins Fibers, Minerals, Water)

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What are the Functions of Connective Tissue

Structural framework for body Transport of fluids and dissolved materials Support and protection for organs Support, protection and interconnecting other tissue types Energy storage Defense

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Connective Tissue (Proper)

Aereolar (Loose) Dense (Regular, Irregular)

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Fluid Connective Tissue

Blood, Lymph

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Supportive Connective Tissue

Cartilage, Bone

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What are the 3 types of Muscle Tissue

Skeletal Cardiac Smooth

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Types of Cardiac Muscle

Involuntary Branched Single Nucleus

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Types of Smooth Muscle

Involuntary Fusiform Single Nucleus Visceral Organs

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Types of Skeletal Muscle

Voluntary Fibrous Multinucleated

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Neural Tissue is made of

Neurons and Neuralgia

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Neurons

Cells Specialized for intercellular communication

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Neuralgia

Support and Protect Neurons

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Proprioception

Receptors in all joints (articulations) and muscles that help know the position of joints and which muscles are being contracted

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What must function properly for good motor skills?

Proprioception and Equilibrium (Send info to the Cerebellum) constantly

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What do the Utricle and Saccule do?

Give acceleration ( Up and Down) (Back and Forth)

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Osmosis

Diffusion of Water through a semipermeable membrane

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Diffusion

Molecules moving from high concentration to low concentration

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Adipose Tissue

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Blood

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Bone

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Cardiac Muscle

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Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

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Dense Regular Connective Tissue

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Elastic Cartilage

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Fibrocartilage

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Hyaline Cartilage

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Loose Connective

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Loose Reticular Connective Tissue

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Pseudostratified Epithelium

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Pseudostratified Epithelium

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Simple Columnar Epithelium

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Simple Columnar Epithelium

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Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

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Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

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Simple Squamous Epithelium

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Skeletal Muscle

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Smooth Muscle

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium

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Transitional Epithelium

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Hypotonic Solution ( And what happens to the cell

Solution which contains higher concentration of water and lower concentration of solutes is called hypotonic solution. Since the concentration of water is higher outside the cell, there is a net movement of water from outside into the cell. Cell gains water, swells and the internal pressure increases

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Hypertonic Solution (And What happens to the Cell)

since the concentration of solutes is greater outside of the cell than inside. For both human and plant cells, the water will rush out of the cell, and it will shrivel up.

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Isotonic Solution ( And What happens to the Cell)

When cells are in isotonic solution, movement of water out of the cell is exactly balanced by movement of water into the cell.

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The Outer portion of the brain is called

The Cerebrum

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The Folds on the Surface of the Cerebrum are called

Gyri

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The grooves on the Cerebrum are called

Suculi

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The Deep groves of the cerebrum are called

Fissures

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Deep to the Cerebrum is the Diencephalon which contains the 

Thalamus and Hypothalamus

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Deep to the Diencephalon (Between brain and spinal cord is the 

Brain Stem

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The Brain stem consists of 3 parts which are: 

Midbrain (Superior)

Pons (Middle)

Medulla Oblongata ( Inferior)

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The Cerebellum is located

In the Posterior Inferior Aspect of the brain

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The Cerebrum is divided into

Lobes

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The Frontal Lobe Processes

Concentration, Planning, Problem Solving, and Motor information

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The Precentral Gyrus is known as the

Primary Motor Area

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The Central Sulcus divides

The Frontal and Parietal lobes

73

The Postcentral Gyrus is the primary

Sensory Area

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The Occipital Lobe processes?

Visual Information

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The Temporal Lobe processes 

Auditory Information

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The Lateral Sulcus

Separates the temporal lobe from the other lobes

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The cerebellum processes information for

Fine Motor Movement, Coordination, and Proprioception

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The Insula (Deep to the temporal Lobe) and Deep in the Lateral Sulcus

Involved in consciousness, motor control, homeostasis, and emotions

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The Cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres by 

Longitudinal Fissure

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The Cerebral Hemispheres are connected by 

A White Matter bridge called the Corpus Callosum

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The Diencephalon is inferior to the Corpus Callosum and contains the

Thalamus and Hypothalamus

84

The Thalamus relays sensory information to the _____ and is also involved in _______.

Cerebrum

Emotions

85

The Hypothalamus regulates 

Pituitary Gland Hormone secretion 

Regulates body temp, thirst, hunger, sexual drive

Involved in emotion and sleep

86

The Pituitary Gland is connected to the Hypothalamus but is located in:

Sella Turica of the Sphenoid bone

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Pineal Gland (Posterior portion of the Diencephalon)

Secretes Melatonin which helps regulate sleep

88

The Midbrain contains the 

Superior and Inferior Colliculi

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The Superior and Inferior Colliculi Control

Movement of head towards stimuli and process hearing

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The pons contains respiratory centers and is involved in

Respiration and Sleep Regulation

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The Medulla Oblongata helps control

Heart Rate,  Respiration, Swallowing, Vomiting, and Blood Vessel Diameter

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The Limbic System

Processes Emotion

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The limbic system includes

Cingulate Gyrus

Parahippocampal Gyrus

Hippocampus

amygdaloid body

mamillary body

parts of the thalamus 

Parts of the hypothalamus

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Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

Clear Fluid that circulates inside and around the brain

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CSF Function

Shock Absorber

Contains Immune Cells

Helps to regulate cerebral blood flow

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CSF is produced by the 

Choroid Plexus (Vascular Structure)

Circulates in ventricles and around outside of the brain

98

There are ___ Ventricles in the brain

4

99

The 4 Ventricles in the Brain are

2 Lateral Ventricles

3rd Ventricle

4th Ventricle

100

The Lateral Ventricles connect to the third ventricle via

the interventricular foramen

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The Third ventricle is connected to the fourth ventricle via the

Cerebral Aqueduct

102

The Covering of the brain is called the

Meninges (Membranes)

103

There are 3 layers of Meninges

Dura Mater

Arachnoid Mater

Pia Mater

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Which meningeal membrane is directly on the brain?

Pia Mater

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The Space between the arachnoid and Pia mater is called

The Subarachnoid space

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The Subarachnoid space is filled with

CSF

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The Choroid plexus produces

CSF

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Arachnoid Granulations

Absorb CSF

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How much CSF is produced Daily?

About 500 mL

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Broca's Area 

Involved in language production and comprehension

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Wernicke's Area

Involved in Speech Recognition

112

A stroke in Broca's area could result in

Aphasia is a language disorder that results from damage to portions of the brain that are responsible for language (Speech) production

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Broca's Area

a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere (usually the left) of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production

114

A Stroke in Wernicke's area would result in 

Aphasia usually occurs suddenly, often as the result of a stroke or head injury, but it may also develop slowly, as in the case of a brain tumor.

 

loss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage.

115

The Inner Ear is enclosed within

The Cranial Bone

116

Conduction Deafness

No Vibration Detection

Usually an issue with the Ossicles or the Choclea

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Sensory Deafness

A result of damage or underdevelopment of the hearing nerves

118

Crossed-Extensor Reflex

 a withdrawal reflex. When the reflex occurs the flexors in the withdrawing limb contract and the extensors relax, while in the other limb, the opposite occurs.

119

Muscle Spindles

Stretch receptors embedded in the connective tissue of the muscle and consist of specialized muscle fibers innervated by sensory neurons. They're arrnaged parallel to the normal muscle cells (Extrafusal fibers)

120

The Knee Jerk Reflex

An Ipsilateral monosynaptic Stretch Reflex.

Striking patellar Ligament stretches tendon and Quadriceps femoris

Spindle is stretched activating sensory neuron

Sensory neuron activates alpha motor neuron

Alpha Motoneuron stimulates extrafusal muscle fibers to contract

121

Crossed- Extensor Reflex

Demonstrates Double Reciprocal Innervation

Flexor contracts and extensor relaxes to withdraw foot

Extensor contracts and flexor relaxes in contralateral leg to support weight

 

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Plantar Reflex

Elicited by cutaneous receptors of the foot. Big toe flexes downward while others flex and come together. Illustrates proper nerve conduction of pyramidal Motor Tracts

123

Babinski's Sign

When the Great toe extends (Upward) and the other toes fan laterally

Damage to the Pyramidal Motor Tracts will produce this sign

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125

What are the 4 independent modalities of cutaneous sensations?

Warmth, Cold, Touch, and Pain

126

Structure of Free Nerve Endings

Unmyelinated dendrites of sensory Neurons

127

Sensation of Free Nerve Endings

Light touch; Hot; Cold; Nocioception (Pain)

128

Nocioception

Pain

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Merkel's Discs Structure

Expanded Dendritic Endings associated w/ 50-70 specialized cells

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Merkel's Discs Sensation

Sustained touch and indented depth

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Location of Free Nerve Endings

Around Hair follicles: Throughout skin

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Merkel's Disc Location

Base of epidermis (Stratum Basale)

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Ruffini Corpuscle (Endings) Structure

Enlarged Dendritic endings within open, elongated capsule

134

Ruffini's Corpuscle Sensation

Skin Stretch

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Ruffini Corpuscle Location

Deep in Dermis and Hypodermis

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Meisner's Corpuscle Structure

Dendrites encapsulated in connective tissue

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Meisner's Corpuscle Sensation

Changes in Texture (Slow Vibration)

138

Meisner's Corpuscle Location

Upper Dermis (Papillary Layer)

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Pacinian Corpuscles Structure

Dendrites encapsulated by concentric lamellae of connective tissue structures

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Pacinian Corpuscles Sensation

Deep Pressure; Fast Vibrations

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Pacinian Corpuscle Location

Deep in Dermis

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Somatosensory Cortex

The Density of touch receptor in some parts of the body is greater than in other parts

They correspond to different regions of the body of different sizes

144

Motor Cortex

Areas of the body which have the largest density of touch receptors also receive the greatest motor innervation

145

Two-Point Threshold Test

The density of touch receptors is measured by this exam

The 2 points of a pair of adjustable calipers are simultaneously placed on the subject's skin with equal pressure, and they are asked if the 2 separate points are felt.  If they say no, they are brought closer together until they only feel one. The minimum distance is the 2 point threshold.

146

Referred Pain

Due to damage in a visceral organ producing pain that is perceived at a different location towards the body surface. 

147

True or False: Organs have sensory Neurons

False: They do not, so referred pain is usually the result of an issue in the corresponding organ.

148

Sensory information from the cutaneous receptors projects to the 

Postcentral Gyrus

Direct electrical stimulation of the postcentral gyrus produces the same sensations as those felt when the cutaneous receptors are stimulated.

149

Sensory Adaptation

Receptors respond strongly to acute changes in environment and then stop responding when those stimuli become constant.

150

In ischemic heart disease, the reffered pain is in

The Left Pectoral region, left arm, and shoulder area  (Angina Pectoris)

151

A referred pain under the right scapula may be caused by a

Gallstone when the gallbladder contracts

152

Vestibular Apparatus

Located in the inner ear above the cochlea; consists of 3 semicircular canals, utricle, and saccule.

153

Meneiere's disease

Ringing of the ears or tinnitus; Vestibuar nystagmus is one of the symptoms; Occurs because the endolymph of the cochlea and the endolymph of the vestibular apparatus are continuous through a tiny canal. 

154

Vertigo may be accompanied by

Dizziness

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