Unit 1: Lecture 13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1: Lecture 13 Deck (36):
1

What three joints make up the elbow complex?

- humeroulnar joint (hinge)
- humeroradial joint (not really a functional joint)
- radioulnar joint (symphasis)

2

How many degrees of flexion/extension should the elbow have, in a normal person?

Flexion: ~145°

Extension: ~170° w/ females, and ~175° with males

3

What is the "carrying angle?"

When the elbow is in extension, the forearm abducts a slight amount, but when brought back into flexion, it disappears

4

Articular capsule in the elbow

- loose, and surrounds elbow complex
- thinner posteriorly, thus most dislocations occur posteriorly
- "thick, tough, yet pliable membrane"

5

Anconeus

- attaches to articular capsule of elbow and ulna
- pulls capsule out of the way of elbow joint upon active extension of elbow
- assist triceps in extending elbow

6

Collateral ligaments

- support elbow complex, and may be observed running along either side
- help to strengthen articular capsule medially and laterally
- ulnar collateral ligament of elbow and radial collateral ligament of elbow

7

Large muscles of arm acting on elbow:

Flexion: biceps brachii and brachialis
Extension: triceps brachii

Brachioradialis (of forearm) also helps with extension

8

Borders of cubital fossa

Proximal: line joining the epicondyles of humerus
Lateral: brachioradialis
Medial: pronater teres
Apex: juncture of brachioradialis and printer teres
Floor: supinator and brachialis
Roof: skin and superficial fascia

9

What is found WITHIN the cubital fossa?

- median cubital vein
- tendon of biceps brachia
- brachial artery
- median nerve
- bicipital aponeurosis

10

Joints of the forearm

Proximal radioulnar Joint
Distal radioulnar joint
Middle radioulnar joint

11

Proximal radioulnar joint

- formed by the radial head against the radial notch of the ulna

12

Ligaments of the proximal radioulnar joint

- Annular ligament: encircles and holds radial head agains ulna. Rotation within annular ligament allows rotation around ulna, which produces pronation/supination
- Oblique cord: flattened fibrous cord that extends from lateral border of the ulnar tuberosity to the radial shaft distal to the radial tuberosity. Holds and supports proximal radioulnar joint. TAUGHT/SUPINATION -- RELAXED/PRONATION

13

Distal radioulnar joint

- held together only by an articular capsule that has both anterior/posterior thickenings
- articular capsule is chief uniting structure of DRJ, though pronator quadratus also important in stabilizing during supination

14

Triangular fibrocartilage

Articular disc contained in distal radioulnar joint which is attached to the styloid process of ulna, and helps to protect the articular surface during movement

15

Middle radioulnar joint

- supported by interosseus membrane, which attaches parallel shafts of ulna and radius
- Interosseous membrane also serves as an attachment site for some of the deeper muscles of the forearm

16

Anterior flexor compartment of arm - musculocutaneous nerve

- Biceps brachii
- Brachialis
- Coracobrachialis

17

Transverse Humeral Ligament

Bridges bicipital groove, securing long head of biceps brachii

18

Extensor compartment of arm - radial nerve

- Triceps brachii (long, lateral, medial)

19

Cutaneous nerves branching from Radial Nerve

- Lower lateral Brachial cutaneous nerve
- Posterior brachial cutaneous nerve

20

Cutaneous nerves branching from Medial Cord

Medial brachial cutaneous nerve

21

Cutaneous nerves branching from Axillary Nerve

Superior lateral Brachial cutaneous nerve

22

Cutaneous nerves branching from T2

Intercostobrachial cutaneous nerve

23

Branches of Brachial Artery

- Muscular branches (supply flexors of arm)
- Profunda brachii (supply extensors of arm)

24

From where does the brachial plexus initially emerge from muscle?

between the anterior and median scalene muscles. So too does the subclavian artery & subclavian vein (passing anterior to artery)

25

What does "coronoid" mean?

Beak

26

Brachialis inserts onto...

Ulnar tuberosity

27

Biceps brachii inserts onto...

Radial tuberosity

28

When "carrying angle" injuries don't heal, they lead to...

cubitus varus, or "gunstock" deformity (epicondylar fracture)

29

Tommy John Surgery

transplanting ligament from another part of body to ulnar collateral ligament, which apparently causes no problems.

30

Strongest flexor?

Brachialis

31

At cubital fossa, the median nerve runs WITH...

the brachial artery

32

At cubital fossa, radial nerve is DEEP to what muscle?

brachioradialis

33

Coming off of the deep radial nerve is the posterior interosseous nerve, which supplies...

most extensors of forearm

34

Superficial radial nerve provides...

sensory to dorsolateral aspect of forearm

35

Canal of frosha

Where deep Radial Nerve pierces the Supinator

36

"Supinator Syndrome"

supinator will “choke off” deep radial, so then problems with posterior parts of forearm