Unit 1: Lecture 6/7 Flashcards Preview

OT 716 - Unit I > Unit 1: Lecture 6/7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 1: Lecture 6/7 Deck (23):
1

How long is the vertebral column? (cm, in, and ft)

72-75cm
28-30in
2.5 ft

2

Curvatures of back (# and time of curvature)

Cervical (7; secondary)
Thoracic (12; primary)
Lumbar (5; secondary)
Sacral (5; primary;)
-------------------------------
Coccygeal (4 - fused)

3

Curvatures of back (flexible or fused)

C - flex
T - flex
L - flex
S - fused
Coccygeal - fused

4

Parts (generalized) of a typical vertebrae (3)

1. body
2. neural arch
3. vertebral foramen

5

Parts of a basic neural arch

1. pedicle
2. processes (superior/inferior articular, spinous, transverse)
3. facets
4. pars interarticularis
5. superior/inferior articular notch

6

Superior Articular Facet + Inferior Articular Facet =

Vertebral Facet Joint (gliding joint)

7

When superior/inferior notches are stacked on top of each other, the space between them forms...

Intervertebral Foramen, allowing space to transmit spinal nerves

8

Special Cervical Vertebrae traits

- Transverse foramen, allowing space for vertebral arteries
- Bifid (split) spinous process
- Uncinate process (uncus body of C2-C7)
- Articular facets start on transverse plane (C3) and end on coronal plane (C7)
- Largest vertebral foramen
- oval-shaped body

9

Special Thoracic Vertebrae traits

- No more uncus or transverse foramen
- heart-shaped bodies
- Costal facets form costal cup
- Articular processes on coronal plane

10

Costal Demi-facet on Thoracic Vertebrae

Creates costal cup, which is where the head of a rib will attach. # of rib will be the number of the LOWER # vertebrae of costal cup

11

Special Lumbar Vertebrae traits

- large bean-shaped bodies
- larger vertebral foramen (triangular-shaped)
- spinous processes are super short and stubby
- Costal facets on a sagittal plane
- Mammillary and Accessory processes

12

Special Sacral Vertebrae traits

- fused
- Anterior/Posterior Sacral Foramina (4 pairs each)
- Sacral canal
- Median/Lateral Sacral ridge
- Sacral horns (articulate with coccygeal horns)
- Sacral hiatus

13

Special Coccyx traits

- fused (4 segments)
- coccygeal horns (articulate with sacral horns)
- transverse processes
- pelvic diaphragm attachment

14

Sacrococcygeal joint

The articulation of facets between sacrum and coccyx.
Gliding joint.

15

Sacrococcygeal ligaments

- 2 lateral (covering the lateral ridges)
- 1 posterior (covering the medial ridge)

16

Intevertebral disks parts (2)

- Nucleus Polposus (inner, jelly-like substance)
- Annulus Fibrosus (fibrous, surrounding layers)

17

Herniated disk happens when...

Nucleus Polposus "squirts" out, into the annulus fibrosus, putting pressure on the nerve root

18

Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (PLL)

Runs the length of the vertebral bodies (anteriorly attached to bodies, but INSIDE vertebral canal), thickest in the cervical vertebrae and thinnest in lumbar segment

19

Anterior Longitudinal Ligament (ALL)

Runs the length of the vertebral bodies, thickest in the lumbar vertebrae and thinnest in cervical segment

20

Why do we get shorter as we age?

One reason is from water loss in our intevertebral disks

21

Curvature shapes

Cervical: anteriorly convex
Thoracic: anteriorly concave
Lumbar: anteriorly convex
Sacral: anteriorly concave

22

Why is newborn's spine fairly concave?

To allow room for the viscera

23

What happens when baby starts walking?

Center of gravity changes, so secondary curvatures develop