Flashcards in Unit 1B - Tropical Rainforests - Characteristics, biodiversity and adaptations Deck (19)
What is temperature like in TRF?
Hot all year (generally between 20 and 28C)
What is precipitation like in TRF?
High (2000mm per year on average)
Process that occurs in shrub layer? Height of layer?
What animals live in canopy and adaptations of these animals and why? Height of top canopy or emergents and canopy?
Monkeys, strong limbs as climbing and leaping all time
Top canopy - 30 - 60m
Canopy - 15 - 30m
What are conditions like in under canopy? Height?
Hot, damp and shaded from wind. Only receives about 5% of sunlight
What is vegetation like in emergent layer?
Many tall trees to reach sunlight, leaves at crown, big buttress roots for support
What do drip tip leaves and waxy coating of leaves do?
Allow excess water to spill off as they channel water off, preventing leaf damage
What is soil like in TRF?
Isn't very fertile as heavy rain washes nutrients away. Nutrients at surface due to decayed leaf fall but this layer very thin as decay is fast in warm, moist conditions. High iron content
What are epiphytes?
Parasitic plants that take root in trees high in canopy
Why are some trees fast growing?
To emerge above forest canopy where they compete for sunlight
What are lianas?
Woody plant that takes root in soil but supported by trees so it can grow upwards to get sunlight
What do buttress roots do?
Wide deep roots to stabilise tree and increase surface area for O2/CO2 exchange and help transport water
Adaptations of brightly coloured poisonous frogs and where are they found?
To deter prey and found in shrub layer
Use of strong beaks for toucans and parrots and where are they found?
To crack nuts and found in top canopy
Why does Titan Beetle live in shrub layer?
To fly and feed on decaying material
Why do many trees have smooth, thin bark?
No need to protect trunk from cold temperatures and allow water to run off and stop other plants growing on tree surface
Why do plants in under canopy have large leaves?
To absorb as much light as possible for photosynthesis
Why are some animals nocturnal?
Feed at night as it's cooler - helping them to save energy