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What was Milgram's sample?

40 males 20-50 years old from New Havens


Where did Milgram's study take place?

Yale University


What inspired Milgram's study?

Adolf Eichmann stating he was a "victim of obedience" during WW2. Wanted to test if it was just Germans who would follow authority figure.


How did Milgram get people to participate?

Paid $4.50 for just turning up.


What was the sampling method for Milgram's study?

Self selecting- advertisement in newspaper and advert through doors.


How many people went up to 450V in Milgram?



How many people surpassed 300V in Milgram?



What is an example of qualitative data in Milgrams study?

"I dont think this is very humane"


What was the background/context to Piliavins study?

The Kitty Genovese case/Bystander Apathy


Whats the difference between Bystander Apathy and Diffusion of Responsibility? (Piliavin)

Bystander Apathy is the phenomenon that people are less likely to help if there are others present, whereas Diffusion of Responsibility is the explanation for this action, which is that when there are more people around, the responsibility dilutes and so people feel less responsibility to help.


What were the 4 hypothesis in Piliavins study?

1. More likely to help ill than drunk
2. More likely to help own race first


What were the four IV's in Piliavins study?

1. The type of victim (drunk or ill)
2. The race of victim (black or white)
3. Effect of the model (early-70secs or late-150 secs, and critical or adjacent) or no model
4. Size of witnessing group (naturally occuring)


Where did Piliavins study take place?

8th Avenue New York Subway, from 7.5 minutes. Weekdays between 11am and 3pm.


What was the sample of Piliavins study?

4450 participants, 45% black and 55% white.


How many cane trials were there is Piliavins study where help was given?



How many drunk trials were there in Piliavins study where help was given?



What was the gender of helpers in Piliavins study?

90% of first helpers were male


What was the effect of the model in Piliavins study?

Little effect as most people intevened beforehand.

Critical or adjacent= no effect

Latency= earlier the model helped, the more helpers.


What are some results in Piliavins study regarding number of bystanders?

60% of 81 trials where help was given it was by 2+ people


Whats some qualitative data from Piliavins study?

"Its for men to help him"


Why might there not have been diffusion of responsibility in Piliavins study?

Trapped on train for couldnt escape situation.
Also, unlike Kitty Genovese's case, people could see that no one else was helping.


What was the model created by Piliavin to explain how people react in emergency situations?

Arousal-cost-reward model. People subconsciously weigh up the pros and cons of a situation and this determines what they do.


How can Banduras study argue the behaviourist perspective?

Children learn through SLT


What are the four hypothesis in Banduras study?

1. Aggressive models lead to aggression
2. Non- aggressive models inhibit aggression
3. Model of same sex more effective
4. Boys more aggressive


What was Banduras sample?

72 children from Stanford university nursery. Equal boys and girls. Ages 3-5.


What happened in the pre-testing in Banduras study?

To control for participants variables.
Rated on four aggression scales by experimenter and teacher. Physical, verbal, towards inanimate objects and inhibition. 51 children rated independently by judges and compared (r=0.89). High inter rater reliability.


How were the children split up in Banduras study?

Put into triplets based on aggressive levels and then split into 8 experimental groups and two control groups.


What was the procedure in Banduras study?

Room 1= (control group did not have this condition) taken into room with toys, and depending on condition, model attacks Bobo dolls (with verbal aggression as well "sock him in the mouth!"), or not.

Room 2= room with really nice toys such as prams and cable cars but then the child is told that they are not for them.

Room 3= room with Bobo dolls. Some aggressive toys such as dart gun, and some non-aggressive toys. Observed through one way mirror, time point sampling every 5 seconds.


How was behaviour observed in Banduras study?

By male model in one way mirror. Time-point sampling every 5 seconds.

For half of children, independently judged by second observer. Consistency good.


What are some results in Banduras study regarding aggressive models making children more aggressive?

Boys shown physically aggressive male model performed average of 25.8 imitative aggressive acts, compared with 1.5 with non aggressive male model.