Unit 3 Criminal: Core and Additional Studies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3 Criminal: Core and Additional Studies Deck (19)
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What was the aim of Raine et al.'s study?

To investigate if brain dysfunction could be a possible reason for why people commit crimes.


What was the sample used in Raine et al.'s study?

Opportunistic sample of 41 people (39m,2f) charged with murder or manslaughter but pleading NGRI. They all had various conditions including head injuries.


What was the control group in Raine et al.'s study and why was it used.

Each participant compared to someone of the same age and gender. The six schizophrenia participants were matched with 6 schizophrenic controls.


What was the procedure of Raine et al.'s study?

Each participant injected with glucose tracer and then monitored for 32 minutes while they completed a continuous performance task- indicating every time there was a 0, and the numbers became more faded over time so the prefrontal cortex was forced to do more work.

After, each participant was given a Positron Emission Tomography scan.


What were the results of Raine et al.'s study?

Murderers= lower activity in prefrontal cortex and left side of amygdala. Suggests lack in self-control and empathy.

Also less activity in the corpus callosum which suggests a lack of ability to recognise long-term implications, as this has also been seen in split brain patients.


What was the conclusion made by Raine et al. about his study?

While it is possible that differences in brain metabolism can make someone more likely to be violent, it is not biology alone and it not does mean that NGRIs are not responsible for their own actions.


What was Brunners study?

Fam in Netherlands with 5 aggressive males.

Urine samples.

Genetic mutilation-couldn't produce MAOA so too much serotonin.


What was Jahoda's study?

Ghana tribe "The Ashanti"

"Kwaku"- wednesday boys will be aggressive.

These boys committed 22% of violent crimes.


What was Raine's study?

100/1700 children were selected from Mauritius for three part programme of enrichment: nutrition, physical exercise and cognitive stimulation.

At 17, over 50% less conduct disorder than other children.

Suggests Omega-3 supplements.


What was the study about smoking in pregnancy?

Smoking during pregnancy can result in the foetus experiencing higher prenatal exposure to testosterone.


What was the aim of Hall and Players study?

To investigate if emotional context will affect the ability to analysis a fingerprint.


What was the sample of Hall and Players study?

70 fingerprint experts metropolitan police (mean approx 11 years)


What was the procedure of Hall and Players study?

Looked at £50 note with ambiguous fingerprint.

Low emotion group- Half told it was trying to pay with forged note.
High emotion group- Half told it was from a gunman who fired 2 gunshots.

Each had access to a Russell comparator for detailed magnified analysis. They had to choice 1 of 4 options:

1) match
2)no match
3)not enough detail
4)some agreement but not definitive


What were the results of Hall and Players study?

No significant differences were found between low and high emotion group in identifying fingerprint.


What was the conclusion of Hall and Players study?

Emotional context does not reduce ability to make a final decision.
Many experts choose not to read crime report- suggests they are capable of analysing fingerprint in an objective manner.


What was Dror's study?

Bottom up approach- open to new ideas

Top down approach- uses experts previous experience ad knowledge to make assumptions about identity of fingerprint.

Top down bias':
Expectancy bias
Selective attention
Conformity effect
Need-determination bias
Overconfidence bias


What was Dror et als study?

27 students (non-fingerprint experts)

Half easy half ambiguous

Low emotion group (bike theft) high emotion group (murder)

In some cases subliminal message "same" "guilty"

Morel likely to find match in emotional cases and subliminal message added to this.


What is Linear Sequential Unmasking?

Info about case ONLY given before fingerprint analysis if its needed to help make identification.

Gradually told in order of importance.


What was Miller idea?

Presented students with either hair sample from one suspect to match to evidence or line-up of 5.

Reduced the number of false positives- reduced bias.