Flashcards in Unit 3 Issues in Mental Health Topic 3: Alternatives to the medical model Deck (12)
What is the behaviourist explanation of mental illness through classical conditioning?
The Little Albert experiment, where he was made phobic of rats by paring it with the loud noise of a mental bar and hammer slamming together.
What is the behaviourist explanation of mental illness through operant conditioning?
Through positive conditioning if a child knows they reward is comfort from parents, or negative reinforcement if anxiety is relieved from avoiding stimulus.
What is the behaviourist explanation of mental illness through SLT?
If they observe an adult having a phobia, copy their behaviour and learn the same phobic response.
What is the cognitive explanation of mental illness based on Aaron Beck and the negative cognitive triad?
3 main dysfunctional beliefs (negative view of world, themselves, and the future), and if someone has this negative cognitive triad, it is very likely they have depression.
Beck theorized that once depressed, people will make cognitive errors such as over-generalisation, filtering and catastrophizing.
What is the cognitive explanation of mental illness based on Albert Ellis and faulty cognitions?
Irrational thoughts could cause and sustain mental disorders. People suffering from fault beliefs may set highly unrealistic expectations, which could hinder their chances of leading a happy and successful life.
What is the treatment for mental health issues based on the cognitive explanation?
What is the psychodynamic explanation of mental health issues?
Unconscious memories and feelings from childhood will give rise to mental illness later on.
Fixations during psychosexual stages of development.
Undeveloped ego may cause schizophrenia being if it can't control the Id, it can't identify where desires end and reality begins.
Psychic conflict between Id and superego (superego too strong may result in overwhelming guilt which can cause mental health issues like depression).
The ego usually stops psychic conflict from damaging us by deploying defence mechanisms. Overuse or inappropriate use can lead to disturbed behaviour.
What is the treatment for mental health issues based on the psychodynamic explanation?
These unconscious thoughts and feelings can be accessed using psychoanalysis (i.e.) dream analysis, free association and projective tests.
What did Szasz publish in 1960 which led to later research?
‘The Myth of Mental Health’ which challenged the medical model of mental illness.
What did Szasz review 50 years after his work in 1960?
He concluded that the medicalisation and politicisation of psychiatry over the past 50 years has led to a dehumanised model of care.
He believes mental illness is a metaphor. He thinks the moral legitimacy of psychiatry should be rejected as it involves violating human liberty.
What are the behaviourist non-biological treatments for someone with a mental health issue?
Systematic desensitisation, flooding, aversion therapy.