Unit 3 Issues in Mental Health Topic 1: The Historical Context of Mental Health Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3 Issues in Mental Health Topic 1: The Historical Context of Mental Health Deck (23)
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1

What are the three historical views of mental health?

Animism, Humorism, Animalism.

2

What is Animism?

SUPERNATURAL EXPLANATION. People have souls which evil spirits can take control of. This can cause madness. Trepanning.

3

What is Humorism?

SOMATOGENIC EXPLANATION. Four humours need to be balanced in order to have good wellbeing.

4

What is Animalism?

BASED ON SOMATOGENIC EXPLANATION. Mental health caused by inability to reason. Restore reason through fear (treated like animals at Bedlam) such as whipping, making them bleed and locking them up.

5

Who was it that "defined abnormalities"?

Rosenhan and Seligman

6

What are the four different ways of defining abnormality?

Statistical infrequency
Failure to function adequately
Deviation from social norm
Deviation from idealistic mental health

7

Regarding Rosenhan and Seligman's defining abnormality, what was statistical infrequency?

Why was this a bad way of defining abnormality?

Rare behaviours are abnormal.

However bad because more rare and less rare behaviour are put in the same box.

8

Regarding Rosenhan and Seligman's defining abnormality, what was failure to function adequately?

Why was this a bad way of defining abnormality?

(i.e.) hold down a job, maintain a relational, and interact effectively in society.

However, bad as this may be due to other factors.

9

Regarding Rosenhan and Seligman's defining abnormality, what was deviation from social norms?

Why was this a bad way of defining abnormality?

Doesn’t follow social norms.

Bad because just because you don't follow social norms doesn’t mean you have a psychological disorder.

10

Regarding Rosenhan and Seligman's defining abnormality, what was deviation from ideal mental health?

Why was this a bad way of defining abnormality?

Feeling positive about yourself, positive interactions and self discipline.

Bad because its hard to operationalise, and we ALL go phases like this.

11

How are mental health issues catagorised?

DSM-5 in USA, ICD-10 in Europe.

22 different categories put in lifespan order.

12

What is a downside to the way mental health issues are categorised?

While it may be a starting point, it does not offer EXPLANATION or TREATMENTS for disorders.

May cause harm by labelling a mental health issues something that it isn't. Corporal pressure to diagnose patients in order for pharmaceutical companies to provide treatments and gain profit.

13

What research was conducted which suggests the way we categorise disorders can be harmful to patients?

Krimsky and Cosgrove found 69% of those who worked on the DSM-5 also had links to the pharmaceutical industry which may have biased the diagnoses (they would want more diagnoses so the pharmacy can gain more money from treatments).

14

What was the aim of Rosenhan's study?

To investigate if USA hospitals in early 1970s could detect sane from insane.

15

In Rosenhan's first study, how did the pseudopatients get into the mental hospital?

8 sane people called up hearing voice say ‘hollow’. One diagnosed with manic depression and the others schizophrenia.

16

In Rosenhan's first study, what was the pseudopatients experience inside of the mental hospital? How did they act? What did they witness?

Stopped displaying symptoms once in hospital. Normal behaviour were misinterpreted such as their note taking.

Staff were brutal to patients when no one else was around.

Only spent an average of 6.8 minutes with psychiatrist per day. In there of an average of 19 days.

17

In Rosenhan's first study, what did the pseudopatients ask to investigate the treatment of patients in mental hospitals?

In 4 hospitals, pseudopatients asked ‘Pardon me, Mr/Mrs/Dr, could you tell me when I will be present at the staff meeting?’

Comparison done by young female in both Stanford University (‘Pardon me, could you direct me to Endica Hall?’) and University Medical Centre (‘I’m looking for a psychiatrist’).

18

What were the results of Rosenhan's first study?

0.5% stopped and talked out of 1283, but at Stanford University 100% stopped and talked to her.

19

What was Rosenhan's second study?

Hospital aware of first study were informed one or more pseudopatient would be admitted over the next three months, but none were sent.

Each member of staff had to rate on a 10-point scale the likelihood that someone was a pseudopatient.

41 patients confidently judged as pseudopatient by at least one member of staff.

20

What conclusions can be made by Rosenhan's studies into sanity and insanity?

Mental hospitals in 1970’s US are not good at making valid diagnosis, as they failed to detect sanity and insanity.

There were not very good at making reliable diagnoses either, as 1/12 was diagnosed with manic depressive disorder as opposed to schizophrenia.

Mental hospitals viewed all behaviour are reflecting diagnoses- ‘stickiness’ of psychodiagnostic labels.
Patients disrespected.

21

What are the characteristics of an affective disorder?

Depression:
5/9 symptoms for at least 2 weeks, and must include either (i) depressed mood most of the day nearly every day or (ii) loss of pleasure in activities.

22

What are the characteristics of a psychotic disorder?

Schizophrenia
A person must experience 2/5 of the following symptoms in one month, and one must be (1), (2), or (3).
Delusions
Hallucinations
Disorganised speech
Disorganized/catatonic behaviour
Negative symptoms (i.e.) diminished emotional expression.

23

What are the characteristics of an anxiety disorder?

Phobia.
Lasts 6+ months. Extreme fear of a specific object or situation, which provokes immediate fear/anxiety. Not better explained by symptoms or another mental disorder.