Unit 3 Environmental: Core and Additional Studies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3 Environmental: Core and Additional Studies Deck (53)
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What was the aim of Black and Blacks study?

To investigate the impact of aircraft noise on community health and wellbeing.


What was the sample used in Black and Blacks study?

Experimental group= suburbs around flight path of Sydney Airport

Control group= matched on socioeconomic status to experimental group.

750 surveys sent back.


What was the procedure of Black and Blacks study?

Cover letter to participants, but not disclosing the aircraft noise part.

26 noise stations around random houses in experimental area. 3 for control houses.

Data collected through questionnaire measuring factors such as health-related quality of life, noise stress and noise annoyance.


What were the results of Black and Blacks study?

Noise exposure group more sharply annoyed by aircraft noise and had a worse health status than controls, especially in mental health.


What was Glass and Singers study?

How noise can cause stress when doing simple cognitive tasks.

IVs: volume, predictability, perceived control.

Less control= more stress!


What was Lundbergs study?

On the train, high density group had more adrenaline (stress) in urine than low density group.


What was Kendrick and MacFarlanes study?

Stopped at traffic light. How long would it take people to horn in 31-46


What was Ellis' Rational Emotive Therapy?

Challenging irrational beliefs which can hinder the chances of success and happiness.

Activating event, belief, consequence, dispute, effect.


What was the aim of Czeislers study?

To investigate the effect of applying the human circadian cycle to the design of a work schedule, considering shift rotation and the intervals between these rotations.


What was the sample used in Czeislers study?

153 workers from Potash factory.

Phase advance system was used every 7 days.


What was the procedure used in Czeislers study?

85 on rotating shifts (33 every 7 days and 52 every 21 days), and 66 on fixed shifts.

9 months later staff turnover and productivity were analysed, was well as the attitudes of the workers.


What were the results from Czeislers study?

Workers preferred new phase delay system > old phase advance system.
21 days > 7 days.
21 days had better health index.


What was the conclusion of Czeislers study?

The 21 day phase delay rotation system is most compatible with the properties of the human circadian system.


What was Siffres study?

Spent 2 months in cave only eating and sleeping when body told him to.

24.5 hour circadian rhythm.

10 mins of activity= 1 minutes of REM sleep.


What was Precket et al.'s study?

Questionnaire determines chronotype (lark or owl) of student. Done by student and parent.

Eveningness significant negative predictor in low GPA in language, maths and science.

Institution favours larks.


What are melatonin supplements?

Used to treat sleeping disorders by adding hormone to body which would normally be released by pineal gland (which controls circadian rhythm) to tell the body to go to sleep.


What is light box treatment?

Mimics outdoor light and treats people with Seasonal Affective Disorder, by sending light to pineal gland to prevent the production of melatonin.


What was the aim of Lords study?

Investigate strategic approaches in increasing the compliance of participation in community recycling programmes.


What was the sample used in Lords study?

140 households in USA ages 19-65


What was the procedure used in Lords study?

First day- check bin content.
Second day- give message without being seen (either pos or neg and either from advertisement, newspaper article, or personal letter from acquaintance).

Week later- check bins again.
Day later- p's contacted and given questionnaire about their attitude towards recycling and the message.


What were the results of Lords study?

Experimental group recycled significantly more.

Personal positive most effective. Personal negative similar to control group.


What were the conclusions of Lords study.

Personal messages, and positive messages are most effective when trying to motivate people to participate in community recycling programmes

/ customers prefer positively framed messages.


What is the Yale Model of Persuasion?

People are more likely to be persuaded in the source is credible, and informal setting. More educated people are more likely persuaded by two sided argument and vice versa.


What was the positive reinforcement in action in Oregon?

'Bottle bill'- gave $0.05 back for bringing back bottles/cans.

Recycling increased from 20% to 90%.


What was Luyben and Baileys study?

In four mobile parks, increase in recycling bins led to 52% increase in recycling of newspapers.


What was Cialdinis study on social norms?

260 after hotel check either asked to
1. commit to be environmentally friendly during stay
2. do specific commitment like reuse towels

Some were given 'Friend of the World' badge.

Specific commitment + badge = 20% more likely to do it..


What was the aim of Drews and Doig's study?

Develop the Configural Vital Sign (CVS) display in order to help nurses in intensive care units.


What was the sample used in Drews and Doig's study?

42 nurses with at least 1 years experience.
69% female.
Ages 25-64


What was the procedure of Drews and Doig's study?

4 patient scenarios: early sepsis, septic shock, pulmonary embolus, stable scenario. Nurse given info on medication and history, and then 5 minute son each.

Half of nurses used CVS display and half used tradition ICV.

Current State Object (CSO) showed how stable the patient was, with the colour representeing the % of oxygen in their blood.

Measured time taken and accuracy.


What were the findings of Drews and Doig's study?

CVS 48% quicker in septic shock scenario.
CVS 1/3 more accurate in septic shock and pulmonary embolus.
CVS less mentally demanding for nurses.