A mass of cancer cells
When is DNA replicated?
During S phase (synthesis) of interphase
The stages of the cell cycle include
Interphase, Mitosis, and Cytokinesis
A skin cell is a ________ and has ___ chromosomes
Somatic (body) cell, 46 chromosomes
Mitosis results in the formation of
2 identical diploid daughter cells, each with 46 chromosomes
Somatic (body) cells are produced via
During which stages of the cell cycle is DNA in chromosome form?
This picture shows a molecule of
The role of DNA polymerase is to
Add nucleotides to the growing DNA strand
Proofread the DNA as it's being replicated
What are the three problems that cells face as they grow larger?
1. Too much waste
2. Not enough nutrients
3. Too much DNA
This picture shows an example of a
Ribosome (doing protein synthesis)
How many codons are needed to code for 6 amino acids?
The enzyme responsible for unzipping the DNA molecule for replication is
What are cyclins? Why are they important to the cell cycle?
Cyclins are a group of proteins that work as internal regulators of the cell cycle by controlling the progression.
True or false: surface area increases faster than volume.
False: volume increases faster than surface area
The rate at which wastes are produced in cells is determined by the
Ratio of volume to surface area
True or false: histones help condense chromosomes into chromatin
True - chromatin coils around the histones
Label the parts of the chromosome
A basic unit of DNA that is made up of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores
What events occur during interphase?
G1 - cell growth
S - synthesis
G2 - growth, preparation for division, replication of organelles
Three letters in a row on tRNA is a(n)
Division of the cytoplasm is
Chargaff's Rules states:
1. Purines and pyrimidines should appear in equal amounts
2. Adenine and Thymine should appear in equal amounts
3. Cytosine and Guanine should appear in equal amounts
This picture shows a molecule of
Cell Division includes
Mitosis and Cytokinesis
How does cell division differ between plants and animals?
Plants - no centrioles, form a cell plate during telophase that becomes the new cell wall during cytokinesis
Animals - has centrioles, forms a cleavage furrow for cells to pinch off of each other
Unregulated progression of the cell cycle results in
Compare and contrast DNA & RNA
DNA - has deoxyribose for sugar, ATCG bases, double stranded
RNA - has ribose for sugar, AUCG bases, single stranded
3 letters in a row on mRNA
When is DNA in chromatin form?
During Interphase and Cytokinesis
How do purines and pyrimidines differ? Which bases are which?
Purines: adenine and guanine
Pyrimidines: cytosine, thymine, uracil
Purines - bigger and bulkier, double-ringed structures
Pyrimidines - smaller, single-ringed structures
Division of the nucleus is
List the stages of mitosis in order, including what happens in each step
Prophase: nucleus dissolves, chromosomes thicken, centrioles wake up, spindle forms
Metaphase: chromosomes line up down the cell equator
Anaphase: sister chromatids are separated, spindle fibers pull the sister chromatids to opposite ends of the cell
Telophase: cleavage furrow begins to form, nucleus reforms, chromosomes thin, centrioles go back to sleep, spindle dissolves
Why is a smaller cell more efficient?
Greater ratio of surface area to volume