Unit 2 - DNA, Mitosis, Protein Synthesis Flashcards Preview

Pre-AP Biology 101 > Unit 2 - DNA, Mitosis, Protein Synthesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 2 - DNA, Mitosis, Protein Synthesis Deck (34):
1

A mass of cancer cells

Tumor

2

When is DNA replicated?

During S phase (synthesis) of interphase 

3

The stages of the cell cycle include

Interphase, Mitosis, and Cytokinesis

4

A skin cell is a ________ and has ___ chromosomes

Somatic (body) cell, 46 chromosomes

5

Mitosis results in the formation of

2 identical diploid daughter cells, each with 46 chromosomes

6

Somatic (body) cells are produced via

Mitosis

7

During which stages of the cell cycle is DNA in chromosome form?

PMAT

8

This picture shows a molecule of

mRNA

9

The role of DNA polymerase is to

Add nucleotides to the growing DNA strand

Proofread the DNA as it's being replicated 

10

What are the three problems that cells face as they grow larger?

1. Too much waste

2. Not enough nutrients

3. Too much DNA

11

This picture shows an example of a

Ribosome (doing protein synthesis)

12

How many codons are needed to code for 6 amino acids?

6

13

The enzyme responsible for unzipping the DNA molecule for replication is

DNA Helicase

14

What are cyclins? Why are they important to the cell cycle?

Cyclins are a group of proteins that work as internal regulators of the cell cycle by controlling the progression.

15

True or false: surface area increases faster than volume.

False: volume increases faster than surface area

16

The rate at which wastes are produced in cells is determined by the

Ratio of volume to surface area

17

True or false: histones help condense chromosomes into chromatin

True - chromatin coils around the histones

18

Label the parts of the chromosome

19

A basic unit of DNA that is made up of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores

Nucleosome

20

What events occur during interphase?

G1 - cell growth

S - synthesis

G2 - growth, preparation for division, replication of organelles

21

Three letters in a row on tRNA is a(n)

Anticodon

22

Division of the cytoplasm is

Cytokinesis

23

Chargaff's Rules states:

1. Purines and pyrimidines should appear in equal amounts

2. Adenine and Thymine should appear in equal amounts

3. Cytosine and Guanine should appear in equal amounts

24

This picture shows a molecule of 

tRNA

25

Cell Division includes

Mitosis and Cytokinesis

26

How does cell division differ between plants and animals?

Plants - no centrioles, form a cell plate during telophase that becomes the new cell wall during cytokinesis

 

Animals - has centrioles, forms a cleavage furrow for cells to pinch off of each other

27

Unregulated progression of the cell cycle results in

Cancer

28

Compare and contrast DNA & RNA

DNA - has deoxyribose for sugar, ATCG bases, double stranded

 

RNA - has ribose for sugar, AUCG bases, single stranded

29

Codons are

3 letters in a row on mRNA

30

When is DNA in chromatin form?

During Interphase and Cytokinesis

31

How do purines and pyrimidines differ? Which bases are which?

Purines: adenine and guanine

Pyrimidines: cytosine, thymine, uracil

 

Purines - bigger and bulkier, double-ringed structures

Pyrimidines - smaller, single-ringed structures

32

Division of the nucleus is

Mitosis

33

List the stages of mitosis in order, including what happens in each step

Prophase: nucleus dissolves, chromosomes thicken, centrioles wake up, spindle forms

Metaphase: chromosomes line up down the cell equator

Anaphase: sister chromatids are separated, spindle fibers pull the sister chromatids to opposite ends of the cell

Telophase: cleavage furrow begins to form, nucleus reforms, chromosomes thin, centrioles go back to sleep, spindle dissolves 

34

Why is a smaller cell more efficient?

Greater ratio of surface area to volume