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Flashcards in Midterm Review! Deck (82):
1

Hair color, skin color, and eye color are examples of

Polygenic traits - traits controlled by more than one gene

2

The three reasons a cell must divide are

Too much waste

Not enough nutrients

DNA overload

3

The process by which organisms with favorable variations survive and reproduce more offspring than less well-adapted organisms 

Natural Selection

4

How would Down's syndrome be detected on a karyotype?

By the presence of an extra chromosome 21

5

Which kingdoms contain organisms with cell walls?

Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae

 

(everything except animalia)

6

A black chicken (BB) and a white chicken (WW) are crossed and the result is all erminette (speckled) chickens. This is an example of what form of inheritance?

Codominance

7

What are the possible blood types? What are the genotypic combinations possible from each phenotype?

A - AA or Ai (also written as IAIA or IAi)

 

B - BB or Bi (also written as IBIB or IBi)

 

AB - AB (also written as IAIB)

 

O - ii

8

How many variables do we test in an experiment? Why?

One. To isolate the variable and ensure that the results could only be caused by the one we are testing.

9

What is the 3 word definition for evolution?

Change over time

10

What is the difference between a dominant and a recessive trait?

A dominant allele will always show whenever the allele for that trait is present; it masks the recessive trait; is represented with a capital letter

 

A recessive allele will only show whenever two of the allele for that trait are present; can be hidden in the presence of a dominant trait; is represented with a lower case letter

11

Where does translation occur? What kind of molecule is made through translation?

Translation occurs in the cytoplasm at the ribosome.

 

Translation is the process of using tRNA to read the mRNA and make proteins

12

What is meant by the terms diploid and haploid?

Diploid and haploid are terms that refer to the chromosome count of an organism

 

Diploid is a full set of chromosomes, represented by 2N; in humans, the diploid number is 46 and all somatic cells are diploid

 

Haploid is a half set of chromosomes, represented by N; in humans, the haploid number is 23 and all gametes are haploid

13

The source of muscles burning is

The build up of lactic acid from lactic acid fermentation

14

ATP is composed of

Adenine, ribose sugar, 3 phosphates

15

Which sex chromosomes does a father give his child? What is the probability that a sperm will carry each one?

X or Y

50% X

50% Y

16

The diffusion of water 

Osmosis

17

Three letters in a row in mRNA is 

 

 

Three letters in a row in tRNA is 

mRNA - a codon

 

tRNA - an anticodon

18

Label the parts of the chromosome

19

The monomers of lipids

Glycerol and fatty acids

20

The difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph

Autotrophs - make their own food

 

Heterotrophs - cannot make their own food

21

Perform a monohybrid cross of Tt and Tt. T - tall, t - short. Mendelian genetic rules apply.

What is the probability the offspring will be tall? Give the phenotypic and genotypic ratios.

75% chance of being tall

 

Phenotypic Ratio: 3:1

Genotypic Ratio: 1:2:1

22

Genes contain the instructions for making

Proteins

23

The components of a DNA molecule include

Deoxyribose sugar

Phosphate

A nitrogen base (A, T, C, G)

24

Who was the first person to see living, moving cells?

Leeuwenhoek

25

C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36ATP

Cellular Respiration Equation

26

Compare and contrast common and scientific names.

Common names - differ among languages, many exist

 

Scientific names - binomial nomenclature, universal, genus and species name, based in latin

27

How many chromosomes would be detected in a "normal" human karyotype?

In a human with Turner's syndrome?

In a human with Down's syndrome?

Normal - 46

Turner's Syndrome (monosomy X) - 45

Down's Syndrome (trisomy 21) - 47

28

Why is colorblindness more common in males than in females?

 

Because colorblindness is a sex linked recessive trait found on the X chromosome. Males only have one X chromosome, and thus only need one recessive gene to have the trait. Females have two X chromosomes and would need two recessive genes to have the trait.

29

Maintaining relatively stable internal conditions

Homeostasis

30

Give an example of each of the three types of natural selection

Directional - cheetah speed

Disruptive - Darwin's finches

Stabilizing - baby size

31

List the levels of organization from smallest to largest

Atom -> Molecule -> Cell -> Tissue -> Organ -> Organ System -> Organism -> Population -> Community -> Ecosystem -> Biosphere

32

What can a karyotype show?

Autosomes, homologous pairs, sex chromosomes, extra chromosomes, if a chromosome is missing

33

Different structure, same function

Analogous Structure

34

Which line do we use to read the genetic codon chart?

The mRNA

35

Robert Hooke is famous for

Being the first to observe cork cells under a microscope and coining the word "cell"

36

Compare and contrast the products of mitosis and meiosis

Mitosis - 2 identical daughter cells that are diploid (2N), meaning they have 46 chromosomes (2 full sets)

 

Meiosis - 4 unique daughter cells that are haploid (N), meaning they have 23 chromosomes (1 full set)

37

Glycolysis results in the net gain of

2 ATP

38

Why do plants appear green?

They reflect green light (the photosynthetic pigments do not absorb the green light)

39

In which organelle does photosynthesis take place?

Chloroplast

40

The three types of RNA are

mRNA, tRNA, rRNA

41

What sex chromosomes does a mother give to her child? What is the probability?

Mothers can only give X chromosomes

100% X

42

Identify this structure

rRNA

43

A situation in which one allele for a trait is not completely dominant over the other allele for the trait

Incomplete dominance (blending)

44

Identify this structure

tRNA

45

Monomers of nucleic acids

Nucleotides

46

What is a pedigree? What can it be used for?

A pedigree is a family tree that can be used to trace inheritance patterns through families. You can use them to determine if a trait is dominant or recessive, whether an individual possesses a trait or not, and the possibility of inheriting a trait

47

Identify this structure

mRNA

48

What is the advantage of a polygenic trait over a single gene trait?

A polygenic trait provides more variation than a single gene trait

49

Where are most sex-linked genes located?

On the X chromosome

50

The products of the cellular respiration equation are

6CO2, 6H2O, 36ATP

51

Describe Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow's contributions to cell theory

Schleiden - plants are made of cells

Schwann - animals are made of cells

Virchow - new cells only come from existing cells

52

In DNA, what determines the traits of an organism?

The sequence of nitrogenous bases!!!!! (A, T, C, G)

53

What are the products of photosynthesis?

C6H12O6, 6O2

54

The mitochondria is the site of

Cellular respiration

55

Provide examples of homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, and heterozygous

Homozygous dominant: AA, BB, CC, DD, etc...

 

Homozygous recessive: aa, bb, cc, dd, etc...

 

Heterozygous: Aa, Bb, Cc, Dd, etc...

56

What is gel electrophoresis? What is it used to determine?

Gel electrophoresis is a method of separating DNA based on its size. It can be used to match a sample of unknown DNA to identify suspects, paternity, etc. The method is based off DNA fingerprinting.

57

6CO2 + 6H2O + Light Energy -> C6H12O6 + 6O2

Photosynthesis Equation

58

The monomers of proteins are

Amino acids

59

Compare and contrast fermentation and respiration

Both take place after glycolysis

Fermentation takes place when there is no oxygen present for respiration

Fermentation does not produce ATP so the 2 ATP gained from glycolysis is the only energy product

Respiration contributes 34 ATP to glycolysis's 2 ATP, resulting in 36 molecules of ATP being made from 1 molecule of glucose

60

What is the difference between a point mutation and a chromosomal mutation?

A point mutation only affects one nucleotide in the sequence.

 

A chromosome mutation affects entire sections of the chromosome, or even whole chromosomes

61

Perform a dihybrid cross of RrTt and RrTt

R - round, r - wrinkled; T - tall, t - short

 

What is the phenotypic ratio?

Phenotypic ratio - 9:3:3:1

62

Where does transcription take place? Why? What is produced through transcription? How?

Transcription takes place in the nucleus of the cell because that is where the DNA is located. mRNA is made by using a DNA template.

63

What is the role of the spindle in mitosis/meiosis?

Separate the chromosomes

64

The complementary base pairing rule in DNA states that

 

 

Chargaff's Rule states that

Purines pair with pyrimidines
(A - T and C - G)

 

The amount of purines and pyrimidines should be roughly equal (A should be the same as T and C should be the same as G)

65

Why does diffusion occur?

Because of the random movement of particles (Brownian motion)

66

DNA replication produces _________

 

 

2 copies of the DNA molecule that follows the semiconservative model, each with one old strand and one new strand

67

A hypothesis is only useful if it is

Testable

68

What is DNA fingerprinting? What is it based on?

DNA fingerprinting is a techinique used to identify people using their DNA. It is based on the idea that no two people, other than identical twins, have the exact same DNA.

69

Monomers of carbohydrates

Monosaccharides

70

All of the alleles for a particular trait for a given population at a certain time

Gene pool

71

What are the sex chromosomes in a male?
In a female?

Male - XY

Female - XX

72

Same structure, different function

Homologous structure

73

Compare and contrast DNA and RNA

DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid; deoxyribose is the sugar; contains ATCG as nucleotides; double stranded; found in the nucleus; is the genetic code

 

RNA: ribonucleic acid; ribose is the sugar; contains AUCG as nucleotides; single stranded; found in mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA forms; mRNA travels from the nucleus to the ribosome, tRNA is at the ribosome, rRNA makes up the ribosome; used in protein synthesis

74

Pigments are

 

The main pigment in plants is

Pigments are substances that absorb specific wavelengths of light

 

Chlorophyll

75

Structures whose use was lost over time and that are no longer functional

Vestigial Structures

76

The two main sources of genetic variation are

 

Which is more common?

Gene shuffling and mutation

 


Gene shuffling is more common

77

The reactants for the cellular respiration equation

C6H12O6, 6O2

78

What are the reactants of the photosynthesis equation?

6CO2, 6H2O, light

79

Anaerobic respiration is different than aerobic respiration in that

Aerobic takes place in the presence of oxygen and makes 36 net ATP
 

Anaerobic takes place without oxygen and makes 2 total ATP

80

What are restriction enzymes? What do they do?

Restriction enzymes are enzymes that cut specific sections of DNA. This is done in order to sequence DNA.

81

What is selective breeding? What does it produce?

Selective breeding is a form of artificial selection. Humans choose desirable traits in an organism and breed organisms to increase the frequency or expression of that trait. It produces organisms with the specific desirable trait.

82

Describe the difference between genotype and phenotype

Genotype - the genes a person has for a particular trait; represented by alleles (letters)

Phenotype - the expression of a person's genotype; what we see; physical appearance