Hair color, skin color, and eye color are examples of
Polygenic traits - traits controlled by more than one gene
The three reasons a cell must divide are
Too much waste
Not enough nutrients
The process by which organisms with favorable variations survive and reproduce more offspring than less well-adapted organisms
How would Down's syndrome be detected on a karyotype?
By the presence of an extra chromosome 21
Which kingdoms contain organisms with cell walls?
Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae
(everything except animalia)
A black chicken (BB) and a white chicken (WW) are crossed and the result is all erminette (speckled) chickens. This is an example of what form of inheritance?
What are the possible blood types? What are the genotypic combinations possible from each phenotype?
A - AA or Ai (also written as IAIA or IAi)
B - BB or Bi (also written as IBIB or IBi)
AB - AB (also written as IAIB)
O - ii
How many variables do we test in an experiment? Why?
One. To isolate the variable and ensure that the results could only be caused by the one we are testing.
What is the 3 word definition for evolution?
Change over time
What is the difference between a dominant and a recessive trait?
A dominant allele will always show whenever the allele for that trait is present; it masks the recessive trait; is represented with a capital letter
A recessive allele will only show whenever two of the allele for that trait are present; can be hidden in the presence of a dominant trait; is represented with a lower case letter
Where does translation occur? What kind of molecule is made through translation?
Translation occurs in the cytoplasm at the ribosome.
Translation is the process of using tRNA to read the mRNA and make proteins
What is meant by the terms diploid and haploid?
Diploid and haploid are terms that refer to the chromosome count of an organism
Diploid is a full set of chromosomes, represented by 2N; in humans, the diploid number is 46 and all somatic cells are diploid
Haploid is a half set of chromosomes, represented by N; in humans, the haploid number is 23 and all gametes are haploid
The source of muscles burning is
The build up of lactic acid from lactic acid fermentation
ATP is composed of
Adenine, ribose sugar, 3 phosphates
Which sex chromosomes does a father give his child? What is the probability that a sperm will carry each one?
X or Y
The diffusion of water
Three letters in a row in mRNA is
Three letters in a row in tRNA is
mRNA - a codon
tRNA - an anticodon
Label the parts of the chromosome
The monomers of lipids
Glycerol and fatty acids
The difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph
Autotrophs - make their own food
Heterotrophs - cannot make their own food
Perform a monohybrid cross of Tt and Tt. T - tall, t - short. Mendelian genetic rules apply.
What is the probability the offspring will be tall? Give the phenotypic and genotypic ratios.
75% chance of being tall
Phenotypic Ratio: 3:1
Genotypic Ratio: 1:2:1
Genes contain the instructions for making
The components of a DNA molecule include
A nitrogen base (A, T, C, G)
Who was the first person to see living, moving cells?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36ATP
Cellular Respiration Equation
Compare and contrast common and scientific names.
Common names - differ among languages, many exist
Scientific names - binomial nomenclature, universal, genus and species name, based in latin
How many chromosomes would be detected in a "normal" human karyotype?
In a human with Turner's syndrome?
In a human with Down's syndrome?
Normal - 46
Turner's Syndrome (monosomy X) - 45
Down's Syndrome (trisomy 21) - 47
Why is colorblindness more common in males than in females?
Because colorblindness is a sex linked recessive trait found on the X chromosome. Males only have one X chromosome, and thus only need one recessive gene to have the trait. Females have two X chromosomes and would need two recessive genes to have the trait.
Maintaining relatively stable internal conditions
Give an example of each of the three types of natural selection
Directional - cheetah speed
Disruptive - Darwin's finches
Stabilizing - baby size
List the levels of organization from smallest to largest
Atom -> Molecule -> Cell -> Tissue -> Organ -> Organ System -> Organism -> Population -> Community -> Ecosystem -> Biosphere
What can a karyotype show?
Autosomes, homologous pairs, sex chromosomes, extra chromosomes, if a chromosome is missing
Different structure, same function
Which line do we use to read the genetic codon chart?
Robert Hooke is famous for
Being the first to observe cork cells under a microscope and coining the word "cell"
Compare and contrast the products of mitosis and meiosis
Mitosis - 2 identical daughter cells that are diploid (2N), meaning they have 46 chromosomes (2 full sets)
Meiosis - 4 unique daughter cells that are haploid (N), meaning they have 23 chromosomes (1 full set)
Glycolysis results in the net gain of
Why do plants appear green?
They reflect green light (the photosynthetic pigments do not absorb the green light)
In which organelle does photosynthesis take place?
The three types of RNA are
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
What sex chromosomes does a mother give to her child? What is the probability?
Mothers can only give X chromosomes
Identify this structure
A situation in which one allele for a trait is not completely dominant over the other allele for the trait
Incomplete dominance (blending)
Identify this structure
Monomers of nucleic acids
What is a pedigree? What can it be used for?
A pedigree is a family tree that can be used to trace inheritance patterns through families. You can use them to determine if a trait is dominant or recessive, whether an individual possesses a trait or not, and the possibility of inheriting a trait
Identify this structure
What is the advantage of a polygenic trait over a single gene trait?
A polygenic trait provides more variation than a single gene trait
Where are most sex-linked genes located?
On the X chromosome
The products of the cellular respiration equation are
6CO2, 6H2O, 36ATP
Describe Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow's contributions to cell theory
Schleiden - plants are made of cells
Schwann - animals are made of cells
Virchow - new cells only come from existing cells
In DNA, what determines the traits of an organism?
The sequence of nitrogenous bases!!!!! (A, T, C, G)
What are the products of photosynthesis?
The mitochondria is the site of
Provide examples of homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, and heterozygous
Homozygous dominant: AA, BB, CC, DD, etc...
Homozygous recessive: aa, bb, cc, dd, etc...
Heterozygous: Aa, Bb, Cc, Dd, etc...
What is gel electrophoresis? What is it used to determine?
Gel electrophoresis is a method of separating DNA based on its size. It can be used to match a sample of unknown DNA to identify suspects, paternity, etc. The method is based off DNA fingerprinting.
6CO2 + 6H2O + Light Energy -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
The monomers of proteins are
Compare and contrast fermentation and respiration
Both take place after glycolysis
Fermentation takes place when there is no oxygen present for respiration
Fermentation does not produce ATP so the 2 ATP gained from glycolysis is the only energy product
Respiration contributes 34 ATP to glycolysis's 2 ATP, resulting in 36 molecules of ATP being made from 1 molecule of glucose
What is the difference between a point mutation and a chromosomal mutation?
A point mutation only affects one nucleotide in the sequence.
A chromosome mutation affects entire sections of the chromosome, or even whole chromosomes
Perform a dihybrid cross of RrTt and RrTt
R - round, r - wrinkled; T - tall, t - short
What is the phenotypic ratio?
Phenotypic ratio - 9:3:3:1
Where does transcription take place? Why? What is produced through transcription? How?
Transcription takes place in the nucleus of the cell because that is where the DNA is located. mRNA is made by using a DNA template.
What is the role of the spindle in mitosis/meiosis?
Separate the chromosomes
The complementary base pairing rule in DNA states that
Chargaff's Rule states that
Purines pair with pyrimidines
(A - T and C - G)
The amount of purines and pyrimidines should be roughly equal (A should be the same as T and C should be the same as G)
Why does diffusion occur?
Because of the random movement of particles (Brownian motion)
DNA replication produces _________
2 copies of the DNA molecule that follows the semiconservative model, each with one old strand and one new strand
A hypothesis is only useful if it is
What is DNA fingerprinting? What is it based on?
DNA fingerprinting is a techinique used to identify people using their DNA. It is based on the idea that no two people, other than identical twins, have the exact same DNA.
Monomers of carbohydrates
All of the alleles for a particular trait for a given population at a certain time
What are the sex chromosomes in a male?
In a female?
Male - XY
Female - XX
Same structure, different function
Compare and contrast DNA and RNA
DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid; deoxyribose is the sugar; contains ATCG as nucleotides; double stranded; found in the nucleus; is the genetic code
RNA: ribonucleic acid; ribose is the sugar; contains AUCG as nucleotides; single stranded; found in mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA forms; mRNA travels from the nucleus to the ribosome, tRNA is at the ribosome, rRNA makes up the ribosome; used in protein synthesis
The main pigment in plants is
Pigments are substances that absorb specific wavelengths of light
Structures whose use was lost over time and that are no longer functional
The two main sources of genetic variation are
Which is more common?
Gene shuffling and mutation
Gene shuffling is more common
The reactants for the cellular respiration equation
What are the reactants of the photosynthesis equation?
6CO2, 6H2O, light
Anaerobic respiration is different than aerobic respiration in that
Aerobic takes place in the presence of oxygen and makes 36 net ATP
Anaerobic takes place without oxygen and makes 2 total ATP
What are restriction enzymes? What do they do?
Restriction enzymes are enzymes that cut specific sections of DNA. This is done in order to sequence DNA.
What is selective breeding? What does it produce?
Selective breeding is a form of artificial selection. Humans choose desirable traits in an organism and breed organisms to increase the frequency or expression of that trait. It produces organisms with the specific desirable trait.
Describe the difference between genotype and phenotype
Genotype - the genes a person has for a particular trait; represented by alleles (letters)
Phenotype - the expression of a person's genotype; what we see; physical appearance