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Flashcards in Final Review! Deck (125):
1

How many variables are tested in a controlled experiment?

 

Be able to explain why.

1 variable

 

You test only one variable at a time so you can be sure it's causing the change.

2

The levels of organization in order from smallest to largest are

Atom, Molecule, Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism, Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biosphere

3

Monomers of carbohydrates are

Monosaccharides

4

The polymers of carbohydrates are

Polysaccharides

5

Which two types of macromolecules are made up of only the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen?

Lipids and Carbohydrates

6

List the four macromolecules (biomolecules)

Lipids

Carbs

Proteins

Nucleic Acids

7

Amino acids are the monomers of

Proteins

8

The polymers of proteins are known as 

Polypeptides

9

DNA and RNA are which type of macromolecule?

Nucleic Acid

10

How would you differentiate between a eukaryotic and a prokaryotic cell?

Eukaryote - has a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

 

Prokaryote - no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles

11

The function of the _____ is to produce proteins

Ribosome

12

The functions of the cell are controlled by the 

Nucleus

13

Ribosomes are made in the

Nucleolus

14

Where are molecules modified and packaged for shipment?

(which organelle)

Golgi Apparatus

15

Describe the functions of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum

Smooth - makes lipids

Rough - makes proteins

16

Which organelle is important to macrophages? 

Why?

Lysosome

The lysosomes contain digestive enzymes that break down cell parts and waste. Macrophages engulf foreign particles in the body as part of the immune system.

17

Briefly describe the function of the mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell.

Makes ATP (energy) for the cell through cellular respiration

18

Where does photosynthesis occur?

Include the locations of the Light Reactions and the Calvin Cycle (part I and part II of photosynthesis)

Photosynthesis - chloroplast

Light Reactions - in the thlylakoids of the chloroplast

Calvin Cycle - in the stroma of the chloroplast

19

The role of the vacuole is to

Store water and materials

20

How do plant cells and animal cells differ?

Plant cells contain chloroplasts, a large central vacuole, and a cell wall

 

Animal cells contain centrioles

21

What is diffusion? Why does it occur? What is the name of the scientific phenomenon that causes it?

Diffusion is the net movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.

It occurs because of the random movement of particles, known as Brownian Motion.

22

Describe the process for cellular respiration including the location, products, reactants, and formula (in words and chemical symbols)

Occurs in the mitochondria (glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm)

Reactants: Glucose & Oxygen

Products: Carbon Dioxide, Water, & 36 ATP

Formula:

C6O6H12 + 6 O2 = 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP

23

Why types of organisms carry out cellular respiration?

All organisms except those that are anaerobic

24

Compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

They are opposite reactions. What are the reactants for one are the products for the other (and vice versa).

25

Light absorbing molecules known as ___________ are found in the _______ of plant cells.

Pigments

Chloroplasts

26

How do the light dependent reactions differ from the light independent reactions?

Light dependent: occurs in the thylakoids; splits water and uses electrons to generate energy; creates oxygen

 

Light independent: occurs in the stroma and uses energy from electron carriers to turn carbon dioxide into glucose

27

The three reasons a cell divides are

1. Too much waste

2. Too little food

3. Too much stress on the DNA

28

Describe the phases of the cell cycle in the order they occur.

Interphase: G1, S, G2 (G 1 & 2 - growth, S - synthesis)

Mitosis (PMAT)

Prophase - nuclear membrane dissoves, chromatin turns into chromosomes, spindle fibers form

Metaphase - chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

Anaphase - chromosomes separate and pull chromatid to opposite ends of cell

Telophase - two nuclei form around chromosomes, spindles disappear, centrioles sleep

Cytokinesis: division of the cytoplasm

 

29

What is the difference between the cell cycle and cell division?

Cell Cycle: includes interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis

 

Cell Division: includes only mitosis and cytokinesis

30

Cancer occurs because of

Uncontrolled cell growth due to DNA damage (mutation)

31

Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis

Mitosis: 2 genetically identical diploid cells; makes somatic (body) cells; only 1 division

 

Meiosis: 4 genetically different haploid cells; creates gametes (sex cells); 2 divisions

32

Diploid and haploid refer to

Diploid - 2 sets of each chromosome (2n); body cells

Haploid - 1 set of each chromosome

33

Genetic variation during meiosis occurs primarily through which two methods?

Crossing over during Prophase I 

 

Independent assortment of chromosomes

34

Compare and contrast DNA and RNA

DNA: deoxyribose sugar, double stranded, contains thymine

 

RNA: ribose sugar, single stranded, contains uracil

35

The three types of RNA are

mRNA (messenger) - takes DNA code to ribosome from nucleus

tRNA (transfer) - brings amino acids to ribosome

rRNA (ribosomal) - makes up the ribosome

36

What type of RNA would you expect to find in the nucleus?

mRNA

37

How do transcription and translation differ? They are both part of which process?

Transcription: occurs in nucleus, DNA code copied to mRNA

Translation: occurs at the ribosome, mRNA code used to make proteins

 

Protein synthesis

38

The physical characteristics of an organism

Phenotype

39

The alleles for a trait

Genotype

40

Pick out the homozygous genotypes from the following list:

 

AA, Tt, gg, Ff, Jj, kk, Ll, mm

AA, gg, kk, mm

41

Type of inheritance where a heterozygote has a phenotype in between the two homozygous phenotypes

Incomplete dominance

42

Type of inheritance where a heterozygote will display both the dominant and recessive traits

Codominance

43

When there is more than one gene that controls a particular trait

Polygenic inheritance

44

When there are more than two alleles for one trait (ex. Blood type)

Multiple alleles

45

What did Darwin observe in his publications?

He observed variations in traits that organisms had on his travels and determined that individuals had traits that suited their environment because it gave them an advantage over those that didn't have that trait.

46

The ability to survive and reproduce

Fitness

47

All of the collective alleles in a population

Gene pool

48

Study of classification and naming

Taxonomy

49

Binomial nomenclature consists of the

Genus and species

50

List the taxonomic levels in order from most broad to most specific

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

51

Ball and socket, hinge, sliding, and immobile are all types of

Joints

52

Where would you find a ball and socket joint?

Hips and shoulders

53

Your elbows and knees are examples of

Hinge joints

54

Your wrist is an example of a _______ joint

Sliding

55

Immobile joints can be found in

Your skull

56

The functions of the _____ system are to support your body, provide structure, store minerals, and provide protection

Skeletal

57

Compare tendons and ligaments

Tendons - bone to muscle

Ligament - bone to bone

58

Movement muscles located next to bones

Striated

Voluntary control

 

Which type of muscle?

Skeletal

59

Only in the heart

Striated

Involuntary control

 

Which type of muscle?

Cardiac

60

Hollow organs and blood vessels

Not striated

Involuntary control

 

Which type of muscle?

Smooth

61

The circulatory system includes the

Heart, blood vessels, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, and blood

62

The function of the ______ system is to transport nutrients and oxygen throughout the body

Circulatory

63

Describe the function of the lymphatic system.

Filters fluid, collects lost fluid and returns it to the circulatory system, transports fat-soluble vitamins

64

How do arteries, veins, and capillaries differ?

Arteries - away from the heart, high pressure, thick walls of smooth muscle, no valves

Veins - take blood back to heart, low pressure, thin walls with little smooth muscle, has valves present to prevent backflow of blood

Capillaries - small blood vessels that connect veins and arteries

65

During which processes will water be lost from the body

Respiration, excretion (sweating/urination)

66

Compare/contrast chemical and mechanical digestion

Chemical digestion - occurs when enzymes and other chemicals break down material; occurs in mouth (salivary amylase) and stomach (pepsin and hydrochloric acid)

Mechanical digestion - physical breakdown of material

67

Fill in the missing pieces

 

Mouth --> ________ --> Esophagus --> Stomach --> _______ --> ________ --> Rectum --> ______

Pharynx, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, Anus

68

How does sugar get broken down during digestion? Where?

Salivary amylase in the mouth

69

_____ and _____ occur in the kidney in order to filter blood

Filtratrion and absorption

70

Why is testosterone important to the body?

Necessary for the development of sperm and secondary sex characteristics

71

How many bones are in an adult human skeletal?

206

72

Describe how an impulse travels down a neuron and gets across the synapse to the next neuron.

As an impulse gets to the axon terminals of the nerve, they stimulate the release of neurotransmitters that travel to the dendrites of the next neuron. As the neurotransmitters are picked up by the dendrites, they initiate another impulse in the second neuron.

73

________ increase heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure while _____ descrease heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.

Stimulants

Depressants 

74

How do enzymes affect the speed of a reaction?

They increase the reaction rate by lowering the activation energy.

75

Name and describe three ways bacteria are classified.

Shape, arrangement, ways of obtaining energy, where they are found, makeup of the cell wall

76

Cocci, bacilli, and spirilla are which shapes?

Cocci - spherical

Bacilli - rod

Spirilla - spiral

77

A disease-causing organism

Pathogen

78

Which type of test is used to separate the two bacterial kingdoms?

Gram staining
(gram positie = purple, gram negative = red)

79

What are some ways bacteria are helpful to humans?

Occupy human body (E. coli in intestines help to digest food, bacteria on the skin compete with other organisms), clean up oil spills, mine minerals, make antibiotics, used in food production

80

Describe the basic structure of a virus.

Nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat (capsid)

81

Why are viruses not classified as living?

They are not made up of cells and cannot reproduce or maintain a metabolism on their own

82

Cumulates in the death of the host cell; viruses burst from the dying host

Lytic cycle

83

Does not destroy the host cell, genetic material is copied

Lysogenic cycle

84

Strep throat, tuberculosis, anthrax, staph infections, food poisoning, tetanus, and bubonic plague are all types of _______ diseases

Bacterial

85

The common cold, influenza, SARS, AIDS, hepatitis, and ebola are caused by

Viruses

86

Can be treated by antibiotics and prevented with vaccines

Bacterial diseases

87

Cannot be treated with antibiotics but can be prevented with vaccines

Viral diseases

88

The role an organism plays in its environment and how it interacts with its surroundings and ecosystem

Niche

89

Where an organism lives

Habitat

90

When an ecosystem is replaced by another ecosystem after some event that destroys everything including the soil

Primary succession

91

Describe secondary succession

When an ecosystem is replaced by another after some event that does not destroy the soil (ex. Farming, fires)

92

How much energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next? What happens to the rest?

10%

Lost as heat

93

The process of converting atmospheric nitrogen into forms that are usable by other organisms

Nitrogen fixation

94

Study of life

Biology

95

Only eats producers

Herbivore

96

Omnivores eat

Both plants (producers) and animals (consumers)

97

Eats only other consumers

Carnivore

98

Breaks down dead and decaying materials

Decomposers

99

Compare mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism

Mutualism - both organisms benefit

Commensalism - one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped

Parasitism - one organism lives and feeds on another organism

100

Carrying capacity is used to determine _______ because

Whether or not a population can increase

 

At carrying capacity, resources become more limited

101

What is penicillium

A fungus that produces an antibiotic (penicillin)

102

Ringworm, athlete's foot, thrush, zygomycosis, and yeast infections are caused by

Fungi

103

What are some diseases caused by protists?

Malaria (Plasmodium), toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma), cryptosporidium (Cryptosporidium), African sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma), Amoebic dysentery (Entamoeba)

104

A symbiotic relationship between a fungi and an algae OR a fungi and a cyanobacteria

Lichen

105

How do angiosperms reproduce?

Reproduces using flowers

106

Vascular bundles scattered in stem

Monocots

107

Vascular bundles form a ring

Dicot

108

Flower petals are in multiples of 3

Monocot

109

Leaf veins form a branched pattern

Dicot

110

Leaf veins form a parallel pattern

Monocot

111

Flower petals in multiples of four or five

Dicot

112

How do stomata work?

Stomata open during the day when there is sufficient water available


They close at night

 

They are openings that allow gas exchange to occur for photosynthesis

113

Which type of tropism causes plants to move towards the light?

Phototropism

114

Plants respond to gravity through ______, which ensures the plant grows up out of the ground and the roots grow into the ground

Gravitropism

115

Plants are able to respond to touch through

Thigmotropism

116

What type of leaves would be good for limited sun availability?

Broad flat leaves

117

What type of leaves would be good for cold weather?

small, needle-like leaves

118

How are protists classified?

By how they obtain their food

119

Plant-like protists are classified based on

Color

120

Animal like protists are classified based on

How they move

121

Fungus like protists are classified based on

How they reproduce

122

Cephalization means

Having sensory organs located in the front (has a head)

123

True or false: endotherms are able to control their body temperatures internally

True

124

The skeleton is located on the outside

Exoskeleton

125

Endoskeletons are located

on the inside of the body