How many variables are tested in a controlled experiment?
Be able to explain why.
You test only one variable at a time so you can be sure it's causing the change.
The levels of organization in order from smallest to largest are
Atom, Molecule, Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism, Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biosphere
Monomers of carbohydrates are
The polymers of carbohydrates are
Which two types of macromolecules are made up of only the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen?
Lipids and Carbohydrates
List the four macromolecules (biomolecules)
Amino acids are the monomers of
The polymers of proteins are known as
DNA and RNA are which type of macromolecule?
How would you differentiate between a eukaryotic and a prokaryotic cell?
Eukaryote - has a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Prokaryote - no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
The function of the _____ is to produce proteins
The functions of the cell are controlled by the
Ribosomes are made in the
Where are molecules modified and packaged for shipment?
Describe the functions of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum
Smooth - makes lipids
Rough - makes proteins
Which organelle is important to macrophages?
The lysosomes contain digestive enzymes that break down cell parts and waste. Macrophages engulf foreign particles in the body as part of the immune system.
Briefly describe the function of the mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell.
Makes ATP (energy) for the cell through cellular respiration
Where does photosynthesis occur?
Include the locations of the Light Reactions and the Calvin Cycle (part I and part II of photosynthesis)
Photosynthesis - chloroplast
Light Reactions - in the thlylakoids of the chloroplast
Calvin Cycle - in the stroma of the chloroplast
The role of the vacuole is to
Store water and materials
How do plant cells and animal cells differ?
Plant cells contain chloroplasts, a large central vacuole, and a cell wall
Animal cells contain centrioles
What is diffusion? Why does it occur? What is the name of the scientific phenomenon that causes it?
Diffusion is the net movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.
It occurs because of the random movement of particles, known as Brownian Motion.
Describe the process for cellular respiration including the location, products, reactants, and formula (in words and chemical symbols)
Occurs in the mitochondria (glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm)
Reactants: Glucose & Oxygen
Products: Carbon Dioxide, Water, & 36 ATP
C6O6H12 + 6 O2 = 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP
Why types of organisms carry out cellular respiration?
All organisms except those that are anaerobic
Compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
They are opposite reactions. What are the reactants for one are the products for the other (and vice versa).
Light absorbing molecules known as ___________ are found in the _______ of plant cells.
How do the light dependent reactions differ from the light independent reactions?
Light dependent: occurs in the thylakoids; splits water and uses electrons to generate energy; creates oxygen
Light independent: occurs in the stroma and uses energy from electron carriers to turn carbon dioxide into glucose
The three reasons a cell divides are
1. Too much waste
2. Too little food
3. Too much stress on the DNA
Describe the phases of the cell cycle in the order they occur.
Interphase: G1, S, G2 (G 1 & 2 - growth, S - synthesis)
Prophase - nuclear membrane dissoves, chromatin turns into chromosomes, spindle fibers form
Metaphase - chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
Anaphase - chromosomes separate and pull chromatid to opposite ends of cell
Telophase - two nuclei form around chromosomes, spindles disappear, centrioles sleep
Cytokinesis: division of the cytoplasm
What is the difference between the cell cycle and cell division?
Cell Cycle: includes interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis
Cell Division: includes only mitosis and cytokinesis
Cancer occurs because of
Uncontrolled cell growth due to DNA damage (mutation)
Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis
Mitosis: 2 genetically identical diploid cells; makes somatic (body) cells; only 1 division
Meiosis: 4 genetically different haploid cells; creates gametes (sex cells); 2 divisions
Diploid and haploid refer to
Diploid - 2 sets of each chromosome (2n); body cells
Haploid - 1 set of each chromosome
Genetic variation during meiosis occurs primarily through which two methods?
Crossing over during Prophase I
Independent assortment of chromosomes
Compare and contrast DNA and RNA
DNA: deoxyribose sugar, double stranded, contains thymine
RNA: ribose sugar, single stranded, contains uracil
The three types of RNA are
mRNA (messenger) - takes DNA code to ribosome from nucleus
tRNA (transfer) - brings amino acids to ribosome
rRNA (ribosomal) - makes up the ribosome
What type of RNA would you expect to find in the nucleus?
How do transcription and translation differ? They are both part of which process?
Transcription: occurs in nucleus, DNA code copied to mRNA
Translation: occurs at the ribosome, mRNA code used to make proteins
The physical characteristics of an organism
The alleles for a trait
Pick out the homozygous genotypes from the following list:
AA, Tt, gg, Ff, Jj, kk, Ll, mm
AA, gg, kk, mm
Type of inheritance where a heterozygote has a phenotype in between the two homozygous phenotypes
Type of inheritance where a heterozygote will display both the dominant and recessive traits
When there is more than one gene that controls a particular trait
When there are more than two alleles for one trait (ex. Blood type)
What did Darwin observe in his publications?
He observed variations in traits that organisms had on his travels and determined that individuals had traits that suited their environment because it gave them an advantage over those that didn't have that trait.
The ability to survive and reproduce
All of the collective alleles in a population
Study of classification and naming
Binomial nomenclature consists of the
Genus and species
List the taxonomic levels in order from most broad to most specific
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Ball and socket, hinge, sliding, and immobile are all types of
Where would you find a ball and socket joint?
Hips and shoulders
Your elbows and knees are examples of
Your wrist is an example of a _______ joint
Immobile joints can be found in
The functions of the _____ system are to support your body, provide structure, store minerals, and provide protection
Compare tendons and ligaments
Tendons - bone to muscle
Ligament - bone to bone
Movement muscles located next to bones
Which type of muscle?
Only in the heart
Which type of muscle?
Hollow organs and blood vessels
Which type of muscle?
The circulatory system includes the
Heart, blood vessels, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, and blood
The function of the ______ system is to transport nutrients and oxygen throughout the body
Describe the function of the lymphatic system.
Filters fluid, collects lost fluid and returns it to the circulatory system, transports fat-soluble vitamins
How do arteries, veins, and capillaries differ?
Arteries - away from the heart, high pressure, thick walls of smooth muscle, no valves
Veins - take blood back to heart, low pressure, thin walls with little smooth muscle, has valves present to prevent backflow of blood
Capillaries - small blood vessels that connect veins and arteries
During which processes will water be lost from the body
Respiration, excretion (sweating/urination)
Compare/contrast chemical and mechanical digestion
Chemical digestion - occurs when enzymes and other chemicals break down material; occurs in mouth (salivary amylase) and stomach (pepsin and hydrochloric acid)
Mechanical digestion - physical breakdown of material
Fill in the missing pieces
Mouth --> ________ --> Esophagus --> Stomach --> _______ --> ________ --> Rectum --> ______
Pharynx, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, Anus
How does sugar get broken down during digestion? Where?
Salivary amylase in the mouth
_____ and _____ occur in the kidney in order to filter blood
Filtratrion and absorption
Why is testosterone important to the body?
Necessary for the development of sperm and secondary sex characteristics
How many bones are in an adult human skeletal?
Describe how an impulse travels down a neuron and gets across the synapse to the next neuron.
As an impulse gets to the axon terminals of the nerve, they stimulate the release of neurotransmitters that travel to the dendrites of the next neuron. As the neurotransmitters are picked up by the dendrites, they initiate another impulse in the second neuron.
________ increase heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure while _____ descrease heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.
How do enzymes affect the speed of a reaction?
They increase the reaction rate by lowering the activation energy.
Name and describe three ways bacteria are classified.
Shape, arrangement, ways of obtaining energy, where they are found, makeup of the cell wall
Cocci, bacilli, and spirilla are which shapes?
Cocci - spherical
Bacilli - rod
Spirilla - spiral
A disease-causing organism
Which type of test is used to separate the two bacterial kingdoms?
(gram positie = purple, gram negative = red)
What are some ways bacteria are helpful to humans?
Occupy human body (E. coli in intestines help to digest food, bacteria on the skin compete with other organisms), clean up oil spills, mine minerals, make antibiotics, used in food production
Describe the basic structure of a virus.
Nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat (capsid)
Why are viruses not classified as living?
They are not made up of cells and cannot reproduce or maintain a metabolism on their own
Cumulates in the death of the host cell; viruses burst from the dying host
Does not destroy the host cell, genetic material is copied
Strep throat, tuberculosis, anthrax, staph infections, food poisoning, tetanus, and bubonic plague are all types of _______ diseases
The common cold, influenza, SARS, AIDS, hepatitis, and ebola are caused by
Can be treated by antibiotics and prevented with vaccines
Cannot be treated with antibiotics but can be prevented with vaccines
The role an organism plays in its environment and how it interacts with its surroundings and ecosystem
Where an organism lives
When an ecosystem is replaced by another ecosystem after some event that destroys everything including the soil
Describe secondary succession
When an ecosystem is replaced by another after some event that does not destroy the soil (ex. Farming, fires)
How much energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next? What happens to the rest?
Lost as heat
The process of converting atmospheric nitrogen into forms that are usable by other organisms
Study of life
Only eats producers
Both plants (producers) and animals (consumers)
Eats only other consumers
Breaks down dead and decaying materials
Compare mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism
Mutualism - both organisms benefit
Commensalism - one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped
Parasitism - one organism lives and feeds on another organism
Carrying capacity is used to determine _______ because
Whether or not a population can increase
At carrying capacity, resources become more limited
What is penicillium
A fungus that produces an antibiotic (penicillin)
Ringworm, athlete's foot, thrush, zygomycosis, and yeast infections are caused by
What are some diseases caused by protists?
Malaria (Plasmodium), toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma), cryptosporidium (Cryptosporidium), African sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma), Amoebic dysentery (Entamoeba)
A symbiotic relationship between a fungi and an algae OR a fungi and a cyanobacteria
How do angiosperms reproduce?
Reproduces using flowers
Vascular bundles scattered in stem
Vascular bundles form a ring
Flower petals are in multiples of 3
Leaf veins form a branched pattern
Leaf veins form a parallel pattern
Flower petals in multiples of four or five
How do stomata work?
Stomata open during the day when there is sufficient water available
They close at night
They are openings that allow gas exchange to occur for photosynthesis
Which type of tropism causes plants to move towards the light?
Plants respond to gravity through ______, which ensures the plant grows up out of the ground and the roots grow into the ground
Plants are able to respond to touch through
What type of leaves would be good for limited sun availability?
Broad flat leaves
What type of leaves would be good for cold weather?
small, needle-like leaves
How are protists classified?
By how they obtain their food
Plant-like protists are classified based on
Animal like protists are classified based on
How they move
Fungus like protists are classified based on
How they reproduce
Having sensory organs located in the front (has a head)
True or false: endotherms are able to control their body temperatures internally
The skeleton is located on the outside
Endoskeletons are located
on the inside of the body