What is the purpose of the digestive system? Where does digestion begin?
To take energy from food, physically and chemically. Digestion starts in the mouth
Pharynx- Esophagus- Stomach-
Pharynx is the connection between digestion and the respiratory tract. Esophagus is where food is pushed to the stomach by Peristalsis (contraction of smooth muscle) Stomach- muscular sac that chemically and mechanically digests food
What's the sphincter?
A ring of muscle that closes off so food doesn't go back up to the mouth
What aids in digestion?
Small intestines- Large intestines-
Small intestine: chemical digestion and absorption of food. Has villi and microvilli! Large Intestine: absorbs water from digested food
What are the accessory structures that aid in digestion in the small intestines?
The pancreas, liver and gallbladder
What is the function of the Excretory System?
Gets rid of toxic chemicals, maintain pH levels and balances water contents of blood
What does the skin do (in excretory system)
Excretes water, salt, and urea
What does the liver do (excretory system)
Takes nitrogen compounds from amino acid and converts it to urea
What are the parts of the kidney?
Renal cortex (outer layer), renal medulla (tissue mass) and renal pelvis (inner layer)
What what are Nephrons?
Microscopic functional unit of the kidney (does the actual filtering)
What is the function of the immune system?
Maintain homeostasis, produce appropriate responses, and protect against pathogens.
What does the first line of defense consist of?
Skin, saliva, stomach acid, mucus (gathers bacteria), and cilla (things that sweep mucus into throats for coughing & swallowing)
What consists of the second line of defense?
Antigens, blood, lymph nodes, thymus gland (produces T-cells), bone marrow (produce B-cells)
What is inflammation?
Due to increased blood flow in the area of infection
What are microphages?
A white blood cell that targets pathogens
What are B-lymphocytes? What are the two types?
B lymphocytes: mature in bone marrow Plasma B-cells: create antibodies that bind to antigen Memory B-cells: remember the pathogen
Where do T lymphocytes mature, and what are the two t-cell types?
They mature in the thymus. There are helper t-cells (activate B cells once macrophage shows antigen) and killer t-cells (kill infected host cells)
Treatment to allergies include what two medicines?
The two layers of skin are..
Epidermis: the outer layer made of epithelial cells and has no blood vessels Dermis: true skin made of connective tissue and has blood vessels
What are the layers in the epidermis?
Squamous germination, stratum corneum, and pigment layer
What's the Dermal Papillae?
It's what's on your finger that creates a finger print
Subcanteous layer, carries major blood vesicles, made of loose connective tissue, insulates and cushions the body.
What are the two types of sudoriferous glands?
Eccrine: assists in body heat regulation Apocrine: found in axilla (armpit) and genitalia. Causes BO
What is the Arrector Pili Muscle?
Muscle at the end of hair follicle near bulb that produces goose bumps
What is the function of the skeletal system?
Support body, protect organs, allow movement, store minerals, form blood cells
Cartilage to bone is called..
What controls homeostasis?
Where does gas exchange occur?
Steps of digestion..
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus
What's the medulla oblongata?
Located in your brain stem, detect CO2 in blood panda controls involuntary breathing
CNS consists of.. PNS consists of..
Brian and spinal chord Everything else
Autonomic NS Somatic NS
Involuntary. Transmit from CNS to cardiac and smooth muscle Voluntary. Transmit from CNS to skeletal muscle
Neurons send signals along their _________ to the _________ of other neurons.
Cerebrum: Cerebellum: Braun stem: Thalamus: Hypothalamus:
Controls voluntary activities Coordination & balance Controls blood pressure, breathing, and heart rate Relays sensory information Controls hunger, body temp, sleep, and moods
new memories about past Emotional center
Endocrine is made of.. and does what?
Glands, and releases hormones into the blood stream
What is the pituitary gland called and list 2 hormones.
The master gland, that's controlled by the hypothalamus. Contains growth hormones, and antidiuretic hormones.
What is the thyroid gland and the parathyroid gland?
Thyroid: regulates body's mechanism Parathyroid: maintains homeostasis of calcium levels
What is the cause of diabetes and what are the types?
A malfunction of the pancreas Type 1: autoimmune disorder that develops before age 15 & requires insulin shots Type 2: usually develops after age of 40, most common type Gestational: high glucose level during pregnancy
Puberty begins when what happens?
When the hypothalamus signals the pituitary gland to produce gonadotropins.
What's an acrosome?
The part of the sperm that breaks down the outer membrane of an egg cell
Haploid, short lived, produce in large quantities
Scrotum: Testes: Epididymis: Vas Deferens: Bulbourethral:
Muscular sac around testes to protect them Sperm are produced in seminiferous tube of each testicle Sperm is stored here Sperm move through this Lubricates urethra for ejaculation
Menstruation lasts how many days? How long is the menstrual cycle?
3-5 days 28 days
When two cells fuse what is that called?