Flashcards in Unit 4: Understanding the musculo-skeletal system Deck (24)
Identify the two sections/views of bones you need to be able to identify and label:
Transverse section of bone
Vertical section of bone
Name the different types of joints:
Ball and socket
Give an example of a ball and socket joint:
Give an example of a pivot joint:
Give an example of a saddle joint:
Give an example of a hinge joint:
Give an example of a sliding/gliding joint:
Give an example of a fixed joint:
Name the components of a synovial joint:
What does muscle do?
It is necessary for movement, it contracts and relaxes to move the joint
What does the bone do?
It provides the framework and support for the body
What does the ligament do?
It attaches one bone to another
What does a tendon do?
Attaches muscle to a bone. When a muscle contracts to move a joint, it is the tendon that pulls the bone
What does cartilage do?
Reduces friction and absorbs shock in the joint, allowing the joint to move smoothly
What does the synovial capsule do?
It secretes synovial fluid and maintains joint stability
What does synovial fluid do?
Lubricates and nourishes the joint
What are antagonistic muscles?
They are a pair of muscles that work in pairs around a joint. One contracts whilst the other relaxes. They bring about then opposite action to each other
Give an example of antagonistic muscles:
Quadriceps and hamstrings in the leg
Biceps and triceps in the arm
What is osteoarthritis?
Cartilage is worn down through overuse or time or being overweight. Bones eventually rub against each other causing pain
What is rheumatoid arthritis?
Auto immune system - body attacks the cells that line the joints. Scar tissue replaces the cartilage and the joint becomes misshapen and rigid. Joints become stiff and swollen.
What is osteoporosis?
Less bone forming cells (osteoblasts) than bone removing cells (osteoclasts) are being made. Mainly down to hormone changes. Bones decrease in density and become brittle and weak.
What is the treatment for arthritis?
Medication to reduce swelling and inflammation
Physio to strengthen muscles around the joints
Surgery to clean joints or replace joints
What is the monitoring and treatment for osteoporosis?
Bone density scans and blood tests
Calcium and Vitamin D supplements
Load bearing exercise
Medication to slow the rate at which bone is broken down