Unit 4: Understanding the musculo-skeletal system Flashcards Preview

DJ Anatomy and Physiology > Unit 4: Understanding the musculo-skeletal system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 4: Understanding the musculo-skeletal system Deck (24)
Loading flashcards...
1

Identify the two sections/views of bones you need to be able to identify and label:

Transverse section of bone
Vertical section of bone

2

Name the different types of joints:

Ball and socket
Pivot
Hinge
Gliding/sliding
Fixed
Saddle

3

Give an example of a ball and socket joint:

Hip
Shoulder

4

Give an example of a pivot joint:

Neck

5

Give an example of a saddle joint:

Thumb

6

Give an example of a hinge joint:

Elbow
Knee

7

Give an example of a sliding/gliding joint:

Wrist
Ankle

8

Give an example of a fixed joint:

Cranium
Pelvis

9

Name the components of a synovial joint:

Muscle
Bone
Ligament
Tendon
Cartilage
Synovial capsule
Synovial fluid

10

What does muscle do?

It is necessary for movement, it contracts and relaxes to move the joint

11

What does the bone do?

It provides the framework and support for the body

12

What does the ligament do?

It attaches one bone to another

13

What does a tendon do?

Attaches muscle to a bone. When a muscle contracts to move a joint, it is the tendon that pulls the bone

14

What does cartilage do?

Reduces friction and absorbs shock in the joint, allowing the joint to move smoothly

15

What does the synovial capsule do?

It secretes synovial fluid and maintains joint stability

16

What does synovial fluid do?

Lubricates and nourishes the joint

17

What are antagonistic muscles?

They are a pair of muscles that work in pairs around a joint. One contracts whilst the other relaxes. They bring about then opposite action to each other

18

Give an example of antagonistic muscles:

Quadriceps and hamstrings in the leg
Biceps and triceps in the arm

19

What is osteoarthritis?

Cartilage is worn down through overuse or time or being overweight. Bones eventually rub against each other causing pain

20

What is rheumatoid arthritis?

Auto immune system - body attacks the cells that line the joints. Scar tissue replaces the cartilage and the joint becomes misshapen and rigid. Joints become stiff and swollen.

21

What is osteoporosis?

Less bone forming cells (osteoblasts) than bone removing cells (osteoclasts) are being made. Mainly down to hormone changes. Bones decrease in density and become brittle and weak.

22

What is the treatment for arthritis?

Medication to reduce swelling and inflammation
Painkillers
Physio to strengthen muscles around the joints
Walking sticks
Surgery to clean joints or replace joints

23

What is the monitoring and treatment for osteoporosis?

Bone density scans and blood tests
Calcium and Vitamin D supplements
Load bearing exercise
Medication to slow the rate at which bone is broken down

24

What is the impact on lifestyle of musculo-skeletal malfunctions?

Side effects of medication
Regular check-ups
Take care to avoid fractures
Loss of height - hunched appearance
Pain
Recovery adaptations - stair lifts etc