Unit 4: Understanding Ears and Eyes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4: Understanding Ears and Eyes Deck (36)
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1

Name the sections of the eye:

Aqueous humour
Cornea
Pupil
Lens
Iris
Conjunctiva
Ciliary muscle
Suspensory Ligament
Retina
Optic nerve
Macular

2

What is the pupil?

The opening in the middle of the eye through which light passes

3

What does the Iris do?

Adjusts to control the amount of light entering through the pupil

4

What do tear glands do?

Produce tears to lubricate the eye and defend against infections

5

What does aqueous humour do?

Jelly like fluid that fills the eye. Keeps the eye's shape and nourishes it.

6

What does the conjunctiva do?

A thin membrane that protects the cornea

7

What does the retina do?

Inner lining of the eye. Receives the light/images.

8

What is the macula?

The part of the retina that receives sharp images.

9

What does the optic nerve do?

The images are sent to the brain via this

10

What does the ciliary muscle do?

Enables the lense to stretch and squash to focus the light

11

What are suspensory ligaments?

Attach the lens to the ciliary muscle

12

What does the lens do?

Focuses the light entering the eye

13

Name the parts of the ear:

Ear drum
Incus
malleus
stapes
semi circular canals
auditory nerve
cochlea
oval window
round window
eustachian tube

14

What is the ear drum?

Thin layer of tissue that receives sound vibrations and transmits them to the middle ear cavity

15

What do the stapes, incus and malleus do?

Small bones that amplify the sound waves and transmit the vibrations across the middle ear to the cochlea

16

What is the cochlea?

Looks like a snail shell.
Vibrations pass through the fluid in the cochlea and are converted to messages to be sent to the brain.

17

What is the organ of corti?

Rows of hair cells that convert sound vibrations into nerve impulses

18

What is the Eustachian tube?

Connects middle ear to throat.
Ensures the pressure inside the ear is equal to the pressure outside the ear

19

What is the round window?

Drum-like membrane
Vibrations from the oval window pass through into the cochlea

20

What is the auditory nerve?

Bundle of nerve fibres that carry hearing information between cochlea and the brain

21

What are the semi-circular canals and ampullae?

Motion sensors to help keep your balance

22

What is Glaucoma?

Caused by a build up of pressure in the eye when fluid from the aqueous humour is unable to drain properly.
Develops slowly over years - blurred vision - blindness

23

Risk factors for Glaucoma

Age
Ethnicity - African, Asian, Caribbean
Diabetes

24

What is AMD?

Age-related Macular Degeneration is where the Macular part of the retina is damaged. Make sharp focus hard - reading and facial features

25

Risk factors of AMD

Smoking
High blood pressure
Being overweight
Family history

26

What is Cataracts?

Lens becomes cloudy/patchy leading to blurred or cloudy vision

27

Risk factors for cataracts

Diabetes
Exposure to UV light
Smoking
Family history

28

What is Retinopathy?

Blood vessels in the eye damaged - by diabetes - leads to blindness

29

Risk factors for retinopathy

Diabetes - high blood sugar

30

Causes of deafness

Exposure to loud noises over years
Viral infections damage the auditory nerve or hair cells in ear ear.

31

Treatment for Glaucoma

Daily eye drops
Regular monitoring
Laser treatment to open up blocked tubes or reduce fluid production

32

Treatment for dry AMD

Stop smoking
Eat green leafy vegetables
Dietary supplements
Support services to adapt to having sight problems

33

Treatment for wet AMD

Regular scans
Injections into the eye
Photodynamic therapy - destroy abnormal blood vessels

34

Treatment for cataracts

Surgery to remove the lens

35

treatment for retinopathy

Injections into eye
Laser treatment
Operation to remove scar tissue from eye

36

Treatment for hearing loss

Earwax can be sucked out or sorted with ear drops.
Implants
Different methods of communication may need to be learned