Unit 4: Understand the control and regulatory systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4: Understand the control and regulatory systems Deck (67)
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1

What are the components of the nervous system?

Central Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Peripheral Nerves
Spinal Cord
Sensory Neurons
Motor Neurons

2

What is the Central Nervous System?

The control centre for the body - brain and spinal cord

3

What are peripheral nerves?

Nerves that branch out from the CNS and take messages to the rest of the body

4

What is the Autonomic Nervous System?

Controls and regulates processes such as heart rate and peristalsis

5

What are Sensory Neurons?

Transmit information from the senses - eyes, ears, skin etc

6

What are Motor Neurons?

Transmit information to the muscles from the brain

7

What are the components of the brain?

Cerebral Cortex
Cerebellum
Frontal Lobes
Corpus Callosum
Hypothalamus
Medulla
Meninges

8

What is the Cerebral Cortex?

Outermost layer of brain, responsible for thinking and processing information.
4 different lobes to process different types of information

9

What is the Cerebellum?

Positioned at the back of the skull, it regulates muscle activity - gross and fine motor skills.
Maintains balance

10

What is the Frontal Lobe?

Part of the cerebral cortex responsible for thinking, decision making and planning, memory, language and judgement

11

What is the Corpus Callosum?

A bridge of nerve tissue that connects the two halves of the brain and enables communication between the two

12

What is the Hypothalamus?

Regulates body temperature.
Regulates appetite and thirst.
Homeostasis

13

What is the Medulla?

Automatically carries out and regulates life-sustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing and heart rate

14

What are Meninges?

Three layers of membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

15

What are the components of a Neuron?

Dendrites
Cell body
Neucleus
Axon
Myelin Sheath

16

What is an Axon?

Long thread-like part of a nerve cell which impulse are conducted away from the cell body to other cells

17

What is a Dendron?

Short, branched structures that receive electrical impulses and carry them towards the cell body

18

What is the Myelin Sheath?

Fatty white substance that surrounds the axon - a protective layer enabling electrical impulses to transmit quickly and efficiently along the nerve cells

19

What is a Synapse?

The gap between nerve cells. Neurotransmitters are released to allow the message to transmit from one nerve cell to the next

20

Name the glands of the endocrine system

Pancreas
Pituitary Gland
Adrenal Gland
Thyroid Gland
Ovaries and Testes

21

What is the function of the Pancreas?

Produces Insulin to regulate glucose levels in the blood

22

What is the function of the Pituitary Gland?

Located at the base of the brain it is the "master" gland that regulates all the other endocrine glands

23

What is the function of the Adrenal Gland?

Situated at the top of each kidney, they produce the "fight or flight" hormone, Adrenaline

24

What is the function of the Thyroid Gland?

Located in the lower front part of the neck, it produces thyroxine which sustains metabolism

25

What are hormones?

Chemical messengers produced in the endocrine system

26

What are the functions of Ovaries and Testes?

Testes - produce testosterone
Ovaries - produce oestrogen and progesterone

27

What are the components of the kidney?

Cortex
Medulla
Calyx
Ureters
Renal Artery
Renal Vein
Urethra
Bladder

28

What is the cortex?

Outer layer of the kidney

29

What is the medulla?

Inner part of kidney. Contains thousands of nephrons

30

What is a calyx?

Chambers through which urine passes

31

What is ureter?

Tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the bladder

32

What is the renal artery?

Supplies kidney with oxygenated blood

33

What is the renal vein?

Carries blood filtered by the kidneys

34

What is the urethra?

Urine passes out of the bladder and out of the body through this

35

What does the bladder do?

Stores urine

36

What is the function of the kidney?

Maintain body's water balance
Control salt levels
Nephrons do the filtering of blood

37

What do kidney nephrons do?

Filter waste from blood (urea) and creates urine.

38

What are the breakdown functions of the liver?

Deamination
Detoxification
Production of bile

39

What is deamination?

breaking down protein (amino acids) - produces a toxic waste (ammonia)

40

What is detoxification?

Liver converts ammonia into urea and sends it to kidneys
Liver breaks down alcohol and removes it from blood

41

What is the production of bile?

Liver produces bile to help breakdown nutrients in the digestive process

42

What is homeostasis?

The maintenance of a constant internal environment - keeps everything normal

43

Give examples of homeostasis:

Body temperature
Blood sugar levels
Water content

44

What is negative feedback?

If the level rises then control systems bring it back.
If the level drops then control systems bring it back

45

What are the stages of negative feedback?

Conditions in the body change from a set point
Change detected
Corrective mechanisms activated
Conditions return to set point

46

What are the symptoms of stroke?

Face may drop to one side
May not be able to raise both arms
Slurred speech
Dizziness
Confusion
Issues with balance and coordination

47

What are the 2 types of stroke?

Ischaemic
Hemorrhagic

48

What causes a ischaemic stroke?

A blood clot which blocks the flow of blood and oxygen to the brain

49

What causes a hemorrhagic stroke?

When a blood vessel in the brain bursts and bleeds into and around the brain

50

What are the risk factors for stroke?

High blood pressure
Smoking
High fat diet
Alcohol
Lack of exercise

51

What is the treatment for a stroke?

Blood thinning (anti clot) medicine
Surgery to remove clot
Surgical stents
Physiotherapy
Mobility aids

52

What is Multiple Sclerosis?

An auto immune system disorder. The myelin sheath is attacked which causes it to be damaged which disrupts the messages travelling along the nerves

53

what are the risk factors for MS?

Genetics
Smoking
Glandular fever

54

What are the symptoms of MS?

Fatigue
Difficulty walking
Numbness or tingling
Muscle stiffness
Blurred vision

55

What is the treatment for MS?

No cure - a progressive disease
Wheelchairs
Steroids
Speech and language therapy
Physiotherapy

56

What are the symptoms of Diabetes

Thirst
Tiredness
Urinating more than usual
Weight loss
Blurred vision

57

What is the cause of Type 1 diabetes?

Auto immune system disorder. Islets of Langerhans (which produce insulin) are attacked

58

What is the cause of Type 2 diabetes?

The body becomes resistant to insulin - Being overweight contributes to this

59

How is type 1 diabetes treated?

Use of insulin to maintain sugar levels.
Monitoring blood glucose levels

60

How is type 2 diabetes treated?

Healthy eating
Regular exercise

61

What is nephrotic syndrome?

The kidney nephrons don't work properly causing large amounts of protein to leak into the urine and subsequently leaves the body when it shouldn't

62

What causes nephrotic syndrome?

Kidney damage
Diabetes
Sickle cell anaemia
HIV
Hepatitis
Syphilis

63

What are the symptoms of nephrotic syndrome?

Swelling of the body tissues
High levels of urine being passed
Greater chance of infections due to loss of proteins
Blood clots

64

What is the treatment for nephrotic syndrome?

Steroids
Reducing salt intake
Vaccinations
Dialysis
Diuretic tablets

65

What is cirrhosis of the liver?

Scaring of the liver tissue caused by overuse detoxification of alcohol

66

What are the symptoms of cirrhosis of the liver?

Nausea
Weight loss
Vomiting blood
Loss of appetite
Jaundice
Swelling of legs, ankles and feet
Itchy skin

67

What is the treatment of liver cirrhosis?

No cure
Lifestyle changes - stop drinking alcohol
Aim for health weight
Transplant as last resort