Unit 4: Understanding the respiratory system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4: Understanding the respiratory system Deck (22)
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1

What are the parts of the respiratory system?

Larynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Alveoli
Diaphragm
Intercostal muscles
Pleural membranes

2

What is the Larynx?

Voice box.
Protects the trachea during swallowing. Epiglottis stops food going where air is supposed to go.

3

What is the trachea?

Wind pipe.
Connects the mouth and nose to the lungs. Air passes through the trachea when air is inhaled and exhaled

4

What are the bronchi?

The left and right bronchi are tubes that branch off the trachea into the lungs

5

What are the bronchioles?

These are the smaller tubes that branch off the bronchi in the lungs

6

What are the alveoli?

Tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. Filled with capillaries, once inflated, oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged here

7

What are pleural membranes?

Cover the surface of the lung. Fluid in between the layers allows movement of the lung during breathing

8

What are intercostal muscles?

A group of muscles located between the ribs. They contract to lift the lungs up during inspiration and relax when exhaling

9

What is the diaphragm?

A muscle located at the bottom of the lungs. Separates the chest from the abdomen. When it contracts it opens up the space in the chest cavity - forcing air into lungs. When it relaxes it squeezes the air out of the lungs.

10

What is gaseous exchange?

The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the capillaries in the alveoli

11

What are diffusion gradients?

Movement of molecules from a high concentration to an area of low concentration. Happens in the alveoli - gaseous exchange

12

What is the role of glucose in respiration?

A sugar called glucose is broken down from our food. It is broken down into water and carbon dioxide and it is this process that creates energy

13

What is the function of ATP?

Adenosine triphosphate is a high energy molecule found in every cell. It supplies the cells with the energy needs

14

What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration

Aerobic - uses oxygen
Anaerobic - does not use oxygen

15

What is lactic acid?

When oxygen is lacking the body produces energy from pyruvic acid - lactic acid is product of this process. It is poisonous and needs oxygen to break it down

16

What are the malfunctions of the respiratory system?

Asthma
Emphysema
Cystic Fibrosis

17

What are the causes of asthma?

Cause unknown.
Triggers cause muscle in airway to contract - reduces airflow and makes breathing difficult.
Triggers: Pollen, smoke, strenuous exercise, dust, damp

18

Symptoms and effects of asthma:

Breathlessness
Tightness of chest
Wheezing
Blue lips
Coughing

19

What are the causes of emphysema?

The alveoli get damaged after years of smoking or pollution. They don't inflate properly and therefore it is difficult to get lots of oxygen into the blood stream

20

What are the symptoms and effects of emphysema?

Shortness of breath
Inability to do even the simplest of tasks without getting tired
Yellow sputem
Frequent coughs

21

What are the causes of cystic fibrosis?

Genetic. Recessive gene so both parents need to be carriers.
Inability to remove mucus properly form lungs - cilia not strong enough because mucus is thick. Leads to regular infections of the lungs

22

What are the symptoms and effects of cystic fibrosis?

Recurring chest infections.
Regular physiotherapy.
Vibrating vest
Shorter life expectancy