Unit 4: Understand the cardiovascular system Flashcards Preview

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What is blood made up of? (Composition of blood)

erythrocytes lymphocytes neutrophils monocytes platelets plasma


What are the functions of blood?

transport temperature exchange of materials with body tissues preventing infection blood clotting


Structure of heart. Name the main chambers, valves and blood vessels in the heart

atria ventricles vena cava pulmonary arteries and veins aorta tricuspid and bicuspid valves semi-lunar valves coronary arteries


What is the function of heart?

double pump diastole systole cardiac cycle role of component parts


What do I need to know about the control and regulation of the cardiac cycle?

location and role of SA and AV nodes Purkyne fibres ECG trace (P,Q,R,S AND T waves/spikes)


Name the types of blood vessels.

arteries veins capillaries


What do I need to know about the formation of tissue and lymph?

role of hydrostatic pressure blood proteins structure and role of lympahtic system


What are Erythrocytes?

Commonly known as red blood cells, erythrocytes contain haemoglobin and transport oxygen and carbon dioxide from and to the tissues and lungs.


What are Lymphocytes?

Lymphocytes are white blood cells present within lymph that fight infection and destroy cells that are abnormal or damaged.


What are Neutrophils?

Neutrophils are white blood cells in the body's immune system responsible for fighting off bacteria and viruses.


What are Monocytes?

Monocytes are the biggest type of white blood cells in the body's immune system responsible for fighting off bacteria and viruses.


What are Platelets?

Blood is made up of platelets and they are cells that enable the blood to thicken or clot.


What is Plasma?

The liquid part of the blood and lymphatic fluid. It transports red and white blood cells and platelets around the body.


Explain blood transportation.

One of the main functions of blood is to transport elements required for life around the body.


Explain blood temperature regulation.

All our chemical reactions are regulated by proteins called Enzymes.


Explain how the blood exchanges materials with body tissues.

Capillaries supply the tissues with oxygen and nutrients while removing waste products such as carbon dioxide. Our respiratory system takes in air containing oxygen, which is needed by cells and body tissues.


Explain how the blood prevents infection.

Lymphocytes recognise when organisms hijack cells to reproduce. So the lymphocytes destroy the cell along with the virus.


Explain blood clotting.

Platelets activate a chain reaction that traps both Platelets and erythrocytes to from a clot.


What do the Atria do?

These are the two upper chambers of the heart. The right atrium receives blood into the heart from the veins that transports blood low in oxygen and the left atrium receives blood from the lungs that is high in oxygen.


What do the Ventricles do?

The two lower chambers of the heart that pump blood around the whole body.


What does the Vena Cava do?

This refers to the large vein that carries doxygenated blood from the body into the right atrium of the heart.


What do the Pulmonary arteries do?

The artery carrying blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation.


What do the Pulmonary Veins do?

Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood. Oxygenated blood from the lungs is circulated back to the heart through the pulmonary veins that drain into the left atrium.


What does the Aorta do?

The Aorta is the largest artery in the body. It carries oxygenated blood away from the heart.


What does the Tricuspid valve do?

This valve is located between the right ventricle and the right atrium of the heart. They prevent blood flow back into the right atrium of the heart.


What does the Bicuspid valve do?

The bicuspid valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart. It enables blood to flow one way, from the left atrium into the left ventricle.


What do the Semi-lunar valve do?

These valves are located in the heart, in the aorta and in the pulmonary artery. Their function is to prevent the blood flowing back into the heart after contraction.


What do the coronary arteries do?

The blood vessels that deliver oxygenated blood and nutrients to the heart muscle.


What are arteries?

Arteries are blood vessels that transport blood away from the heart. In most cases (not the pulmonary artery) this is blood rich in oxygen


What are veins?

Veins are blood vessels that transport blood towards the heart. In most cases (not the pulmonary vein) this blood low in oxygen


What is a double pump?

Where both sides of the heart contract at the same time. One pumps oxygenated blood around the body. One pumps de-oxygenated blood to the lungs. This happens at the same time.


What is diastole?

Part of the cardiac cycle when the ventricle muscles are relaxed. The chambers of the heart are filling with blood


What is systole?

Part of the cardiac cycle when the ventricle muscles contract - pushing blood out of the ventricles and to the body/lungs


What is the cardiac cycle?

2 circuits: pulmonary lungs/heart. systemic - heart/body Heart pumps blood through both systems then back to the heart. The blood that has been round the body then goes to lungs to exchange de-oxygenated blood for oxygenated. That blood then goes back to heart to be distributed round the body


What is the Sino Atrial Node (SA)?

Situated in the upper wall of the right atrium. Responsible for setting the rhythm of the body's pulse


What is the Atrioventicular Node (AV)?

Situated in the bottom of the right atrium. Responsible for the rhythm of the heart by transmitting impulses it receives from the SA node and sending these from the atria to the ventricles


What are Purkyne fibres?

These muscle fibres slow the message down from the atria to the ventricles so they don't both contract at the same time - allows time for blood to drop into ventricles after atria have contracted before ventricles contract


What is an ECG trace?

An electrocardiogram is a test that monitors the electrical activity of the heart


What does the P,Q,R,S and T waves on an ECG test mean?

P = atrial contraction QRS = Ventricular contraction T = ventricles relaxing


What are capillaries?

Thin, small blood vessels that allow the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide through their walls


What is hydrostatic pressure?

The pressure exerted within the capillaries that pushes the fluid out of the thin walls


What is the lymphatic system?

It is s set of nodes - lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen and liver- that are connected by vessels full of lymph. It picks up toxins and excess fluid. Vital for the body's immune system


Name the cardiovascular malfunctions

Hypertension Coronary Heart Disease Angina Heart Attack Heart Failure


What is hypertension?

High blood pressure - continually. Ultimately leads to weakening of blood vessels - leads to stroke and heart attack. If arteries get damaged then plaque can build up, narrowing the arteries


What is Angina?

When the coronary arteries are blocked/narrowed, less blood flow goes to the heart muscle. This causes a sharp pain - especially on exertion.


What is CHD?

Coronary Heart Disease is where fat builds up on the coronary artery wall - becomes narrower


Treatment and care needed for heart conditions/malfunctions.

Lifestyle changes - exercise, diet, smoking Medication Blood pressure readings ECG traces Coronary bypass