Unit 4: Understanding the digestive system Flashcards Preview

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1

Structure of the digestive system. Name the parts of the digestive system

Buccal cavity
Salivary glands
Epiglottis
Oesophagus
Stomach
Small intestine - duodenum and ilium
Large intestine
Rectum
Anus
Liver
Gallbladder
Bile duct
Pancreas
Pancreatic duct

2

What is the function of the buccal cavity?

The mouth. Food is chewed to break it down

3

What is the function of salivary glands?

Produce saliva which helps moisten food and make it easy to swallow

4

What is the function of the epiglottis?

Flap of cartilage behind tongue which covers the opening of the windpipe when swallowing food

5

What is the function of the oesophagus?

A muscular tube that connects the throat with the stomach

6

What is peristalsis?

A squeezing action by the muscles which helps the food to move through the digestive system

7

What is the function of the stomach?

The stomach is a sac with muscular walls that churn food to break it up. It produces hydrochloric acid and enzymes to digest the food

8

What is the function of the small intestine?

The first part is the duodenum. The food, partially digested by the stomach (chyme) is chemically altered by bile from the gallbladder and digestive juices from the pancreas.
The second part is the ilium. The ilium is lined with villi which absorb the nutrients out of the chyme

9

What is the function of the large intestine?

Large intestine (or colon) takes water out of the chyme as it passes through

10

What is the function of the rectum?

Rectum is the last part of the colon and links it to the anus. It stores faeces until they can be expelled from the body

11

What is the function of the anus?

The opening in the body through which the faeces is expelled

12

What is the function of the liver?

When the nutrients are absorbed by the ilium, nutrients are sent to the liver to be distributed - assimilation

13

What is the function of the gallbladder?

Stores bile

14

What is the function of the pancreas?

Creates digestive enzymes to break food down

15

What is mechanical digestion?

Breaking food down by movement.
Stomach churning the food.
Mouth chewing the food

16

What is chemical digestion?

Breaking down food with chemicals.
Hydrochloric acid in stomach
Digestive enzymes in small intestine

17

What is the digestive role of pancreatic juice?

Pancreas produces digestive enzymes that are released into the small intestine to help digest fats

18

What is the digestive role of bile?

Helps the body absorb fat and neutralise stomach acids

19

How is the small intestine's wall adapted to absorb nutrients?

Villi and micro-villi which are finger-like projections that increase the surface area of the small intestine wall.
These villi sway and nutrients are absorbed by diffusion

20

What is assimilation?

The liver distributing the nutrients that are absorbed by the small intestine

21

What are the conditions/malfunctions associated with the digestive system?

Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Coeliac Disease
Gallstones

22

What is IBS?

Irritable Bowel Syndrome:
Stomach pain and cramping.
Diarrhoea.
Bloating and swelling.
Caused by food moving too quickly or too slowly through the large intestine. Certain foods trigger this movement.

23

What is Coeliac Disease?

Stomach pain and bloating. Nutrient deficiencies such as anaemia.
Auto-immune system condition. Immune system attacks gluten in the small intestine , damaging the villi.

24

What are Gallstones?

Abdominal pain and itchy skin.
High levels of cholesterol in the gallbladder causes crystals to form.
Overweight and/or being over 40 are risk factors.

25

What does an ultrasound do?

It examines the liver and other organs using high frequency sounds. Can identify gallstones. Echoes are interpreted by a computer

26

What does an endoscopy do?

A camera that examines the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum. Images relayed to a screen

27

What is a biopsy?

As ample of tissue is taken from one of the organs to identify problems.

28

What is the treatment for IBS?

Diarrhoea - avoid triggers. High fibre foods.
Bloating/cramping - avoid triggers.Avoid foods hard to digest.

29

What is the treatment for coeliac disease?

Avoid foods containing gluten.
Vitamin and mineral supplements

30

What is the treatment for gallstones?

Keyhole surgery.
Lithotripsy - delivers shock waves to gallbladder to dislodge gallstones

31

What is the impact of IBS?

Abdominal pain may restrict sleep
Visiting the toilet may restrict trips and socialising
Flatulence may be embarrassing
May need to avoid stressful situations
Keep a food diary to check for triggers
Regular exercise

32

What is the impact of coeliac disease?

Remove gluten from the diet.
Take additional vitamins and minerals.
Read food labels carefully when shopping.
Take care when eating out.
Take care when eating put - speak to staff about allergy information

33

What is the impact of gallstones?

Avoid high cholesterol foods.
Eat a healthy, well-balanced diet