Flashcards in Unit 4: Understanding the digestive system Deck (33)
Structure of the digestive system. Name the parts of the digestive system
Small intestine - duodenum and ilium
What is the function of the buccal cavity?
The mouth. Food is chewed to break it down
What is the function of salivary glands?
Produce saliva which helps moisten food and make it easy to swallow
What is the function of the epiglottis?
Flap of cartilage behind tongue which covers the opening of the windpipe when swallowing food
What is the function of the oesophagus?
A muscular tube that connects the throat with the stomach
What is peristalsis?
A squeezing action by the muscles which helps the food to move through the digestive system
What is the function of the stomach?
The stomach is a sac with muscular walls that churn food to break it up. It produces hydrochloric acid and enzymes to digest the food
What is the function of the small intestine?
The first part is the duodenum. The food, partially digested by the stomach (chyme) is chemically altered by bile from the gallbladder and digestive juices from the pancreas.
The second part is the ilium. The ilium is lined with villi which absorb the nutrients out of the chyme
What is the function of the large intestine?
Large intestine (or colon) takes water out of the chyme as it passes through
What is the function of the rectum?
Rectum is the last part of the colon and links it to the anus. It stores faeces until they can be expelled from the body
What is the function of the anus?
The opening in the body through which the faeces is expelled
What is the function of the liver?
When the nutrients are absorbed by the ilium, nutrients are sent to the liver to be distributed - assimilation
What is the function of the gallbladder?
What is the function of the pancreas?
Creates digestive enzymes to break food down
What is mechanical digestion?
Breaking food down by movement.
Stomach churning the food.
Mouth chewing the food
What is chemical digestion?
Breaking down food with chemicals.
Hydrochloric acid in stomach
Digestive enzymes in small intestine
What is the digestive role of pancreatic juice?
Pancreas produces digestive enzymes that are released into the small intestine to help digest fats
What is the digestive role of bile?
Helps the body absorb fat and neutralise stomach acids
How is the small intestine's wall adapted to absorb nutrients?
Villi and micro-villi which are finger-like projections that increase the surface area of the small intestine wall.
These villi sway and nutrients are absorbed by diffusion
What is assimilation?
The liver distributing the nutrients that are absorbed by the small intestine
What are the conditions/malfunctions associated with the digestive system?
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
What is IBS?
Irritable Bowel Syndrome:
Stomach pain and cramping.
Bloating and swelling.
Caused by food moving too quickly or too slowly through the large intestine. Certain foods trigger this movement.
What is Coeliac Disease?
Stomach pain and bloating. Nutrient deficiencies such as anaemia.
Auto-immune system condition. Immune system attacks gluten in the small intestine , damaging the villi.
What are Gallstones?
Abdominal pain and itchy skin.
High levels of cholesterol in the gallbladder causes crystals to form.
Overweight and/or being over 40 are risk factors.
What does an ultrasound do?
It examines the liver and other organs using high frequency sounds. Can identify gallstones. Echoes are interpreted by a computer
What does an endoscopy do?
A camera that examines the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum. Images relayed to a screen
What is a biopsy?
As ample of tissue is taken from one of the organs to identify problems.
What is the treatment for IBS?
Diarrhoea - avoid triggers. High fibre foods.
Bloating/cramping - avoid triggers.Avoid foods hard to digest.
What is the treatment for coeliac disease?
Avoid foods containing gluten.
Vitamin and mineral supplements
What is the treatment for gallstones?
Lithotripsy - delivers shock waves to gallbladder to dislodge gallstones
What is the impact of IBS?
Abdominal pain may restrict sleep
Visiting the toilet may restrict trips and socialising
Flatulence may be embarrassing
May need to avoid stressful situations
Keep a food diary to check for triggers
What is the impact of coeliac disease?
Remove gluten from the diet.
Take additional vitamins and minerals.
Read food labels carefully when shopping.
Take care when eating out.
Take care when eating put - speak to staff about allergy information