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Flashcards in unit 7 Deck (54)
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1

A document that specifies a contingent
relationship between the completion of a
specified behavior or tsk and access to a

specific reward

Contingency contract

2

Contracts are not used for

Skill acquisition

3

Contracts are used for

Permanent products

4

The individual’s verbal repertoire must be
sufficiently advanced so that his/her behavior
comes under the control of the contract

Contracts

5

Necessary elements of a contract

Task
Signatures
Reward
Data collection

6

Should monitor progress of contract and
provide interim rewards

Progress record

7

The opportunity to engage in a high-
probability behavior contingent upon the

occurrence of low-probability behavior will
reinforce the low-probability behavior

Premack principle

8

Payoff should be immediate
Initially reward small approximations
Reward frequently with small amounts
Reward accomplishments, not obedience
Reward performance after it occurs
The contract must be fair, honest, and

positive

The terms of the contract must be clear
Contracting methods used systematically

Contracting rules

9

Date contract begins and ends

Behavior
Amount and kind of reward
Signatures of all involved
Schedule for review of progress

DeRisi model

10

Involve the individual in some or all aspects of
developing the contract
Select behavior-negotiate
Describe behavior, must be observable and

measurable
Identify rewards

Identify mediator, collect data, and reward
Write understandable contract
Collect data

Troubleshoot the system if no improvement

Rewrite contract

Monitor, troubleshoot, rewrite for improvement

Contracting guide

11

A contingency in which reinforcement for all
members of a group is dependent on the
behavior of a person within the group, a
select of group members within the larger
group, or each member of the group meeting

a performance criterion

Group contingency

12

Group of persons share certain problem
Unrealistic to set up individual programs
Difficult to identify the person responsible for

x behavior

Singling out one person to reward may cause

problems with peers

Consider using group contingencies when

13

Types of group contingencies

Independent
Dependent
Interdependent

14

A contingency in which reinforcement for
each member of a group is dependent on
that person’s meeting a performance criterion
which is in effect for all members of the group

Independent group contingency

15

A contingency in which reinforcement for all
members of a group is dependent on the
behavior of one member of the group or the
behavior of a select members within the

larger group

Dependent group contingency

16

Dependent group contingency is also known

as

Hero procedure
Consequence sharing

17

Interdependent group contingency

A contingency in which reinforcement for all
group members of a group is dependent on
each member of the group meeting a
performance criterion that is in effect for all

members of the group

18

Group average: Advantage

Group members may continue to work hard
to meet criterion even when they see peers
failing to meet the criterion

19

Group average: Disadvantage

Some group member may become “free

riders”

20

Advantage of random selection with group

contingencies

As it is uncertain who will be selected as the
person to be evaluated, all members may
work harder and try to meet the criterion

21

Advantages of group contingencies

May save time as do not need to design multiple

programs

May be easier to implement that individualized

programs
May work quickly

Takes advantage of natural peer-to-peer influence
Group members may encourage “hero” or all

other peers

Group members may discontinue reinforcing
undesirable behavior of “hero” or all other peers



22

Disadvantages of group contingencies

Peers may put too much pressure on the
“hero” or other peers

If the “hero” does not earn the reward or if
some peers lose the reward for the group,

others may retaliate
Can be tricky to implement successfully
depending on the makeup of the group
May have other undesirable effects

23

Guidelines for implementing group

contingencies

Choose powerful rewards
Determine the behavior to be strengthened or

weakened

Set appropriate performance criteria
Combine with other procedures when

appropriate

Select the most appropriate group

contingency

Monitor individual and group performance

24

Indiscriminable group contingency

Can be used with independent, dependent,
or interdependent group contingencies
Members cannot predict which group
members, target behaviors, settings, and/or
times on which the reward will be contingent
Can be a powerful strategy for promoting
generalization and maintenance

25

A system whereby participants earn
generalized condition reinforcers as an
immediate consequence for specific

behaviors

Token economy

26

System development for token economies

Administrative issues
Ethical issues
Legal issues

27

Components of token economies

What do we want the individual to do?
What kind of “token”?
What will help motivate the individual?

28

Steps in designing a token economy

Select tokens
Identify target behaviors

Select back-up items that can be exchanged

for tokens

Establish the ratio of earning and exchanging

Develop procedures
Field testing and training

29

Select tokens

Consider:
Client characteristics
Safety of the token
Difficulty to bootleg
Durability
Cost
Ease of delivery

30

Identify target behaviors

Mostly behavior to accelerate
Observable
Measureable
Clearly defined
Criteria for earning token(s)