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Flashcards in unit 9 Deck (26)
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1

To create new individuals who are capable of
doing new things, not simply of repeating
what other generations have doneindividuals
who are creative, inventive, and
discoverers

Goal of education

2

Importance of generalization

Most students with autism and severe
disabilities have difficulty generalizing the
skills they learn.
And effective teacher has students perform
targeted skills in different settings and with
different instructors, cues, and materials
before concluding with confidence that the
student has acquired and generalized a skill

3

Continued importance of generalization

Adulthood is expressed through selfsufficiency

4

The occurrence of relevant behavior under
different conditions without the scheduling of
the same events in those conditions as had
been scheduled in the training conditions

Generalization

5

The extent to which performance of the target
behavior is improved in environments
different than the original training
environment

Stimulus generality

6

The extent to which the learner performs
variety of functional responses in addition to
the trained response

Response generality

7

The extent to which the learner continues to
perform the target behavior after a portion or
all of the intervention has been terminated

Maintenance

8

Generalization across participants

The changes in behavior of untreated
persons as a function of the treatment
contingencies that are applied to the client

9

Techniques for programming the generality
of behavior change

ntroduce to natural reinforcement
contingencies
Train sufficient exemplars
Train loosely
Use Indiscriminable contingencies
Program common stimuli
Mediate generalization
Train to “generalize”

10

Transfer control from trainer to stable, natural
contingencies
Accomplished by choosing behaviors to
teach that will meet maintaining
reinforcement contingences after training

Introduce to natural reinforcement
contingencies

11

Train sufficient exemplars

Train in multiple settings
Use multiple trainers
Train with multiple stimuli

12

Train loosely

Training is conducted with relatively little
control over the stimuli presented and the
correct responses allowed, so as to maximize
sampling to relevant dimensions r transfer to
other situation and other forms of the
behavior

13

Use indiscriminable contingencies

Use variable reinforcement schedules
Delay reinforcement
Hide

14

Continuous reinforcement

Used to teach new skills
Use until the data show stable responding for
several days

15

Intermittent reinforcement

Used to sustain/maintain intervention effects
Used after stable responding has been
achieved
Can use a variable schedule to
systematically fade reinforcement from
continuous to intermittent

16

Training diversely

Focused training yields focused effects
Diverse training yields diverse effects
Use sufficient stimulus exemplars
Vary dimensions of antecedents
Make contingencies Indiscriminable

17

Mediate generalization

Establish a response as part of the new
learning that is likely to be used with other
problems as well
Language is the most common mediator

18

Train to generalize

Reinforce generalization
Use instructions to facilitate generalization

19

Gradual approximate the antecedent stimulus
conditions of the target environment by fading
in natural distracters within the training
environment
Select antecedent stimuli for the training
environments that can be altered to gradually
approximate the stimuli in the target
environment
Gradually change the nature of the consequent
stimulus conditions from contrived to natural
reinforcers and punishing stimuli

Programming for generalization

20

if a behavior has been maintained in two or more
contexts, and a procedure that decreases the
behavior (e.g., DRO or extinction) is introduced
in one of these contexts, the behavior may
increase in the other context(s) despite no
changes in the contingencies in these other
contexts.

Behavioral contrast

21

Direct consumers

The individuals we are paid to serve (clients)

22

Indirect consumers

Other individuals who benefit from behavior
change in clients

23

Terminating services

Never abandon clients
Don’t leave suddenly without adequately
preparing
Start planning ahead of time and collaborate with
other professionals

24

Criteria for terminating

They don’t need your services
Client is not benefiting
Client is harmed by you service
The environment is unsafe

25

Risk-benefit analysis

The potential gain must be weighed against the
risk of continuing
This is done when deciding to take a case,
continue with a case, and terminate a case

26

Steps in a risk-benefit analysis

Assess risk of behavioral intervention
Assess benefits
Discuss the analysis with involved parties
Decision