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Flashcards in Urine Lab Stuff Deck (48)
0

How long should you look at urine after you get it? When should it be refrigerated?

Within one hour to look at it or refrigerate

1

How long can a urine sample be refrigerated?

6 hours

2

What twmperature does urine need to be for specific gravity?

Room temp

3

What are seven things that can happen as urine sample sits at room temp?

RBC decrease
Casts decrease
Glucose decreases
pH increases
Bacteria increase
Turbidity increase
Crystals increase

4

Why does the pH increase in a urine sample as it sits out?

Bacterial breakdown of urea to ammonia

5

What should you look for in a gross examination?

Urine volume
Urine color
Transparency
Odor
Foam

6

What do you look for in urine volume? 3

Normal
Polyuria
Oliguria

7

What should you look for in urine color? 2

Normal
Abnormal

Some shade of yellow

8

What should you look for in transparency? 3

Clear, cloudy, flocculent

9

What should you look for with odor and foam? 2

Normal and abnormal

10

What does pH measure?

The H+ concentration in urine

11

What is the ph of carnivores?

<7

12

What is throw in herbivores?

>7

13

What is abnormally low ph associated with? 4

Hypo ventilation
Starvation
vomiting
Diarrhea

14

What is abnormally high pH associated with? 3

Hyperventilation
Bacterial UTI
Postprandial urine Sample

15

How can pH be falsely increased?

If urine is left out at room temp for a long time

16

What will a false PH read?

Alkaline

17

Is protien usually dectactable on a dipstick?

Not usually, but low amounts is normal

18

What can effect protien level?

Method of collection
Prolonged contact with the test pad

19

What does protienuria indicate?

Disease:kidney damaged, urinary tract inflammation

20

Is glucose normally detectable in urine?

No

21

When will glycosidic occur in dogs?

When they reach >170-180 mg/DL

22

When will glucosuria occur in a cat?

When >260-310

23

What are three conditions associated with glucosuria?

Diabetes mellitus, stress/excitement, carb meal

24

What can cause a false reading of glucose?

Decreased in refrigerator

25

Where do ketones come from?

Result from fat breakdown

26

Are ketones normally detected in urine?

No

27

What are four ways ketones can occur?

Diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, toxemia/ketosis, starvation/fasting

28

What are bile pigments?what are two bile pigments?

Chemicals derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin

29

What are two bile pigments?

Bilirubin and urobilinogen

30

What can cause bilirubinurea?

RBC destruction, hepaticellular damage, bile duct obstruction

31

Small quantities of what can be detected in normal dogs?

Normal dogs

32

Is bilirubin stable in irons samples?

No

33

What can cause hematuria?

Bacterial UTI, urolithiasis, interstitial cystitis, neoplasia, renal disease, trauma

34

What will urine look like with hematuria? 3

Wine, brown, cloudy red

35

What can happen with hematuria and a centrifuge?

Abnormal color may disappear

36

Is hemoglobin found in urine?

No

37

What are two things that can cause hemoglobinuria?

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, blood transfusion, incompatability

38

What is the color of hemoglobinuria?

Wine, brown, cloudy red

39

Will the color change with hemoglobinuria after centrifugation?

No

40

Why is myoglobin?

Oxygen carrying molecules found in muscle that are similar to hemoglobin

41

What does myoglobin do to the color of the urine?

Dark brown to black

42

When Is myoglobin observed?

When significant muscle damage occurs

43

What are three things that can cause myoglobin in the urine?

Rhabdomyolysis, trauma, toxicity

44

What does pyuria mean?

Indicative of inflammation in the urimary tract/leukocytes

45

What are two causes of pyuria?

Bacterial UTI and urolithiasis

46

Why would you preform a urinary sediment analysis?

Detect abnormalities not seen in gross or biochemical analysis

47

Sample for urinary sediment analysis should be what? 3

Fresh
Concentrated
Collected by cysti