USMLE Deck2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in USMLE Deck2 Deck (115):
1

Most common cancer in men

Prostate > lung > colon

2

Most common cancer in women

Breast > Lung > Colorectal > uterine

3

Most common cancer mortality in men

Lung > prostate > colorectal > pancreas

4

Most common cancer mortality in women

Lung > breast > colon > oancreas

5

abl

tyrosine kinase; CML

6

c-myc

Transcription factor; Burkitt's t(8;14)

7

bcl-2

anti-apoptosis; follicular and undifferentiatiod lymphomas t(14;18)

8

erb-B2

Tyrosine Kinase (HER2/neu) targeted by trastizumab; breast, ovarian and gastric

9

ras

GTPase; K-ras->colon, lung pancreas; H-ras->bladder, kidney tumors; N-ras->melanomas, hematologic

10

L-myc

Transcription factor; Lung

11

N-myc

Transcription factor; neuroblastoma

12

ret

Tyrosine Kinase (neurotrophic growth factor); MEN IIA and IIB; papillary thyroid carcinoma

13

c-Kit

Cytokine receptor; GI stromal tumor

14

Rb

blocks G1->S by binding E2F; retinoblastoma

15

p53

glocks G1->S; most cancers

16

BRCA

DNA Repair; breast and ovarian

17

p16

Melanoma

18

APC

Associated with FAP, Colorectal cancer

19

WT1

Wilm's tumor

20

DPC

Deleted in Pancreatic cancer

21

DCC

Deleted in colon cancer

22

HNCC

inactivation of DNA mismatch repair (microsatellite alterations)

23

Cyclin D

Mantle cell lymphoma t(11;14)

24

CDK4

Melanoma

25

PDGF-beta

Astrocytoma

26

TGF-alpha

Astrocytoma and hepatocellular carcinoma

27

HER2/neu

Growth factor receptor; breast tissue

28

Drugs with low therapeutic index

Lithium, digoxin, warfarin, phenobarbital

29

Cigarette smoke associated cancers

Lung (squamous and small cell), Oral (squamous laryngeal and squamous esophageal), Pancreatic, bladder, and renal cell

30

aflatoxin

mutation in p53, aspergillus in food -> hepatocellular carcinoma

31

Nitrosamines

gastric cancer

32

vinyl chloride

angiosarcoma of the liver

33

CCl4

liver disease

34

asbestos

mesothelioma and bronchogenic carcinoma (more commonly)

35

Naphthalene dyes

In moth balls -> transitional cell bladder cancer (along with smoking)

36

Alkylating agents

Leukemia

37

Arsenic

alloys, pesticides, squamous cell carrcinoma angiosarcoma

38

Li Fraumeni syndrom

AD inherited mutation in p53; have many cancer especially sarcomas, adrenal, neural etc.

39

DNA REPAIR DISEASES

HNPCC, Xeroderma pigmentosum (excision repair defect-unusaully sensitive to sunlight because can't repair T-T dimers), Ataxia-telangiectasia (ataxia, telangiectasia, increased risk of lymphoma and leukemi)

40

Assoc. w what neoplasm: Down syndrome

ALL, AML

41

Assoc. w what neoplasm: Xeroderma pigmentosum; albinism

melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinomas of skin

42

Assoc. w what neoplasm: Atrophi gastritis, pernicious anemia, postsurgical gastric remnants

Gastric Adenocarcinoma

43

Assoc. w what neoplasm: Tuberous Sclerosis

Angiomyolipoma, rhabdomyoma, astrocytoma

44

Assoc. w what neoplasm: Actinic Keratosis

Skin squamous cell

45

Assoc. w what neoplasm: Barrett's esophagus

Esophageal adenocarcinoma

46

Assoc. w what neoplasm: Plummer Vinson syndrome

Esophageal squamous carcinoma

47

Assoc. w what neoplasm: cirrhosis

hepatocellular carcinoma

48

Assoc. w what neoplasm: ulcerative colitis

colonic adenocarcinoma

49

Assoc. w what neoplasm: paget's bone

Osteosarcoma and fibrosarcoma

50

Assoc. w what neoplasm: immunodeficiency

Lymphomas

51

Assoc. w what neoplasm: AIDS

Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, Kaposi

52

Assoc. w what neoplasm: Autoimmune disease

Lymphoma (such as in hashimoto's thyroiditis)

53

Assoc. w what neoplasm: Acanthosis nigricans

Visceral malignancy (gastric, lung, uterus)

54

Assoc. w what neoplasm: Dysplastic nevus

Malignant melanoma

55

Assoc. w what neoplasm: Radiation

Sarcoma, papillary thyroid cancer, leukemia

56

Drugs contraindicated in sulfa allergy patients

celecoxib, loops (furosemide), thiazide, acetazolamide, probenecid, sulfonamides

57

Anaplastic cell features

High nucleus:cytoplasmic ratio; prominent nucleoli; clumping chromatin; mitotic figures

58

Most common sites to metastatic liver

Colon, stomach, pancreas, breast, lung

59

Mets to brain

Lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney, GI

60

Bone mets

Prostate, renal cell, tyroid, lung, testes, lung, lymphoma, breast

61

Paraneoplastc: Small cell lung

ACTH or ACTH-like; ADH; Lambert-eaton

62

Paraneoplastc: Intracranial

ADH

63

Paraneoplastc: squamous cell lung

PTHrP (hypercalcemia), TGF-beta, TNF, IL-1

64

Paraneoplastc: Renal cell, hemangioblastoma, hepatocellular, pheochromocytoma

Epo -> polycythemia

65

Paraneoplastc: Thymoma

Lambert Eaton

66

Paraneoplastc: Leukemias and lymphomas

Hyperuricemia and gout

67

Psammoma bodies

Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid, serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of ovary, meningioma, malignant mesothelioma

68

PSA

Prostate cancer, or other prostate pathologies

69

CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen

colon cancer, pancreatic cancer

70

AFP (alpha fetoprotein)

Hepatocellular or Yolk sac tumor

71

CA-125

Marker for ovarian cancer

72

S-100

melanoma, schwanomma, glial tumor

73

Alk phos

METs to bone, paget's disease of bone

74

Bombesin

Adrenal neuroblastoma, lung, and gastric cancer

75

TRAP

Hairy cell leukemia

76

CA 19-9

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma

77

inhibits complement C9 binding

CD55 and CD59

78

NK Cell receptors

CD16

79

Endotoxin receptor on macrophages

CD14

80

Cancer associated with obesity

Esophagus adenocarcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, endometrial, gallbladder cancers, thyroid and colon cancer

81

Nephrotoxic/ototoxic drugs

Vancomycin, Aminoglycosides, Loop diuretics, Cisplatin

82

Drugs that interfere with microtubules

Vincristine, vinblastine, paclitaxel, -bendazoles, griseofulvin, colchicine

83

Volume of distribution

Vd = D/C (amount of drug/plasma concentrat)

84

Clearance

CL = Rate of elimination/plasma concentration = [0.7xVd]/(t1/2)] = Vd x K

85

LD

CpxVd/F (Cp = target plasma concentration)

86

Maintenance Dose MD

MD = Cp x CL/F (CL = clearance, F = bioavailability)

87

Half life

t(1/2) = 0.7xVd/(CL); after 4 half-lves 94% has been eliminated, 3 half-lives 88% has been eliminated, 2 half lives 75% has been eliminated and 1 half life has eliminated

88

Therapeutic index TI

TI = LD50/ED50 so a higher TI results in a safer drug; Drugs with low TI: Warfarin, Digoxin, Lithium and Seizure drugs

89

P450 Inhibitors

Macrolides, Amiodarone, Grapefruit juice, Isociazid, Cimetidine, Ritonavir, Acute alcohol, Ciprofloxacin, Ketoconazole, Sulfonamides

90

P450 Inducers

Quinidine, Barbiturates, St. John's wort, Phenytoin, Rifampin, Griseofulvin, Carbamazepine, Chronic alcohol

91

Disulfiram-like reaction drugs

Metronidazole, some Cephalosporins, Procarbazine, 1st generation sulfonylureas

92

Sulfa Drugs

Probenecid, Furosemide, Acetazolamide, Celecoxib, Thiazides, Sulfonamide antibiotics, Sulfasalazine, Sulfonylureas

93

Drugs that undergo Zero-order metabolism

Phenytoin, Ethanol, Aspirin

94

-azole

antifungal

95

-cycline

protein synthesis inhibitor, tetracycline

96

-navir

Protease inhibitor

97

-triptan

5-HT1B/1Dagonists (migraine)

98

-ane

Inhalation general anesthetic (ie. Halothane)

99

-caine

Local anesthetic

100

-operidol

Neuroleptic

101

-azine

Neuroleptic, antiemetic

102

-barbital

Barbiturate

103

-zolam

Benzodiazepine

104

-azepam

Benzodiazepine

105

-etine

SSRI (ie Fluoxetine)

106

-ipramine

TCA

107

-triptyline

TCA

108

-olol

Beta antagoinist

109

-terol

beta-2 antagonist

110

-zosin

alpha-1 antagonist

111

-oxin

Cardiac glycoside

112

-pril

ACE-I

113

-afil

Erectile Dysfunction

114

- tropin

pituitary hormone

115

-tidine

H-2 antagonist (Cimetidine)