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Flashcards in UWorld_7.18 Deck (36):
1

Analgesic overuse ==> kidney dz?

chronic interstitial nephropathy w/WBC casts

2

glomerulonephritis ==> UA results?

-hematuria/RBC casts
-+/- proteinuria

3

Most important risk factor for stroke

HTN

4

Complications of wilson's dz.

-cirrhosis
-hepatolenticular degeneration (basal ganglia) ==> neuropsych changes

5

Tx of wilson's dz.

-copper chelators: d-penicillamin or tientine
-oral zinc
-liver transplant if needed

6

Renal tubular acidosis ==> acid/base disturbance?

metabolic acidosis

7

Metabolic alkalosis evaluation

1. urine chloride
-low urine cl ==> vomiting/aspiration vs. diuretic use
-high urine cl ==> examine vol. status
2. volume status
-hypervolemia ==> excess MC activity, e.g. hyperaldo, cushings, ectopic ACTH
-hypovolemia/euvolemia ==> bartter & Gitelman syndromes

8

Management of torsades de pointes

1. defib in hemodynamically unstable patients
2. IV magnesium sulfate @ conscious/stable patients + removal of offending causes (e.g. medication induced prolonged QT)

9

Drugs that prolong QT

-diuretics ==> electrolyte imbalances
-zofran
-antipsychotics (haloperidol, quetiapine, risperidone)
-TCAs
-SSRIs: citalopram
-Antiarrhythmics: amiodarone, sotalol, flecainide
-antianginal: ranolazine
-antibiotics: macrolides, fluoroquinolones, antifungals

10

Electrolyte imbalances ==> prolonged QT

-hypoK
-hypoMg
-hypoCa

11

Thyroid storm presentation

-fever
-tachycardia/arrhythmias
-HTN
-tremor
-AMS
-lid lag

12

Dermatitis herpetiformis association/presentation

-pruritic papules/vesicles @ elbows, knees, buttocks, etc.
-assoc. w/gluten-sensitive enteropathy

13

Porphyria cutanea tarda presentation

-painless blisters, hypertrichosis, hyperpigmentation
-assoc. w/hep C
-can be triggered by ethanol, estrogens

14

Acute Hep B infection

-icterus
-urticarial rash
-flulike sx
-elevated LFTs

15

Indications for carotid endarterectomy

-@ men: 60-99% stenosis w/out sx or >50% if sx
-@ women: 70-99% stenosis

16

RA skeletal risks

-osteopenia
-osteoporosis
-bone fx

17

Sensorineural hearing loss vs. conductive hearing loss

-Rinne test: bone > air conduction ==> dx = conductive hearing loss
-Weber: @ conductive ==> affected ear; @ sensorineural ==> unaffected ear

18

Common cause of conductive hearing loss in adults

otosclerosis = remodeling of otic capsule w/stapes fixed to oval window

19

Abx ototoxicity ==>

sensorineural hearing loss

20

Imaging of pancreatitis

RUQ ultrasounds

21

Artifical heart valves/severely calcified valves ==> heme-related complication?

macrovascular hemolysis ==> microcytic anemia

22

Fear of public speaking/performance ==> dx?

social anxiety disorder

23

hyperactive bowel sounds + dilated loops of bowel ==> dx?

ileus

24

Albumin impact on calcium

-most Ca2+ bound to albumin/plasma proteins
-decreased albumin ==> decreased total Ca2+; ionized Ca will stay stable

25

Cause of low platelets in HIT

autoantibodies

26

Tx of acute dystonia 2/2 anti-psych

-benztropine
-diphenhydramine

27

Tx of acute parkinsonism 2/2 anti-psych

-benztropine
-amantadine

28

PPx of cluster H/A

-verapamil
-prednisone
-ergotamine
-indomethacin

29

Tx of cluster H/A

100% O2

30

Wartlike lesions + violaceous nodules + skin ulcers ==> dx?

blostomycosis

31

Histoplasmosis infx presentation

-mycosis @ Miss./OH river valley
-asx vs. mild pulmonary
-diss. @ immunocompromised

32

Coccidioidmycosis infx presentation

-mycosis @ SW united states/CA
-pulmonary

33

Evaluation of hypocalcemia

1. corrected Ca (is albumin low?)
2. low Mg? drugs? blood transfusion?
3. measure PTH
-normal/low: (para)thyroidectomy/radical neck surgery, wilson's dz, hemochromatosis
-high: Vit D deficiency/CKD, pancreatitis, sepsis, tumor lysis

34

Tetralogy of Fallot murmur

harsh, systolic ejection murmur @ LUSB

35

VSD murmur

-holosystolic murmur @ LLSB
-diastolic rumble 2/2 increased blood flow across mitral valve

36

Risk factors for acalculous cholecystitis

-severe trauma, burns, recent surgery
-prolonged fasting or TPN
-critical illness