UWorld_6.26 (week 1 make-up) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in UWorld_6.26 (week 1 make-up) Deck (42):
1

Management of aortic dissection

-Type A: IV b-blockers (labetalol) + surgery
-Type B (descending only): IV b-blockers (labetalol)
-avoid vasodilators and heparin

2

Leydig cell tumors ==> ?

-increased testosterone +/- estrogen production (2/2 aromatase action)
-inhibition of FSH and LH also ==> additional estrogen ==> gynecomastia

3

Teratomas ==> ?

+/- elevated AFP or beta-hcg

4

Endodermal sinus tumor ==> ?

-aka "yolk sac tumor"
- ==> elevated AFP

5

DLCO in COPD (chronic bronchitis vs. emphysema)

-DLCO normal in chronic bronchitis
-DLCO low in emphysema

6

Babesiosis presentation

-Ixodes tick (NE US)
- can ==> hemolytic anemia w.jaundice, renal failure, death

7

Several days w/out BM + N/V + abdominal pain ==> ?

SBO

8

Risk factors for endometrial cancer

-age >45
-obesity
-DM
-unopposed estrogen (e.g. periods of ammenorrhea)
-PCOS
-early menarche/late menopause

9

DKA management

1. NS
2. correct hyperglycemia, electrolytes, acidosis (insulin, glucose, potassium)
3. tx of any precipitating causes (i.e. infections)

10

Prevention of vasospasm s/p SAH

nimodipine initiation

11

Medical tx for acute abnormal uterine bleeding

-high dose IV or oral estrogen
-high-dose combined OCPs
-high-dose progestin pill
-tranexamic acid

12

Routine meds to hold before cardiac stress testing

-beta blockers
-ca-channel blockers
-nitrates
-dipyridamole
-no caffeine for 12 hours before

13

Fanconi anemia presentation

-AR
-congenital marrow failure
-poor growth (short)
-morphologic abnormalities (abnormal thumbs, pigmentation abnormalities, ear problems)
-macrocytic anemia
-caused by chromosomal breaks

14

Acquired causes of aplastic anemia

-Drugs (NSAIDs, sulfa)
-toxins (benzene, glue)
-idiopathic
-viral (HIV, EBV)
-immune disorders
-thymoma

15

Nephrotic syndrome associated with HIV, heroin use

focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

16

FSGS associated w/...

-African American
-Obesity
-Heroin use
-HIV

17

Membranous nephropathy associated w/...

-adenocarcinoma (lung, breast)
-NSAIDs
-Hep B
-SLE

18

Membranoproliferative nephropathy associated w/...

-Hep B & C
-lipodystrophy

19

Characteristics of epidermal inclusion cyst

-benign nodule that produces keratin
-dome-shaped, mobile cyst w/small central punctum
-can be stable, resolve, or increase in size

20

Most common cause of sudden CHF in young, healthy person

viral myocarditis

21

Tx of acute glaucoma

-narcotics for pain
-increased IOP: mannitol, acetazolamide, timolol, pilocarpine

22

Med to avoid in acute glaucoma

-atropine b/c can ==> pupil dilation and worsened glaucoma

23

red, maculopapular rash @ face, then trunk/extremities + preceeding cough, tearing, rhinorrhea, sneezing ==> dx?

measles

24

Vitamin that reduces morbidity/mortality in measles

vitamin A

25

Nephrotic syndrome associated w/RA

-amyloidosis
-@ renal biopsy: amyloid deposits will stain w/congo red

26

Characteristics of hypopituitarism

1. glucocorticoid deficiency ==> hypoglycemia, hypoNa
2. Testosterone deficiency (low/normal FSH/LH) ==> low libido, ED
3. hypothyroidism

27

Clopidogrel MOA

P2y12 receptor blocker

28

Eval of suspected BPH

-rectal exam
-UA
-PSA if >10yr. life expectancy

29

Management of neonatal clavicular fx

-reassurance; gentle handling, pain management
-no surgery needed

30

Characteristics of WPW

-accessory pathway that bypasses AV node
-short PR interval (

31

WPW pic

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

32

Aromatase deficiency presentation

-decreased conversion of androgens to estrogens
- ==> gestational maternal virilization and virilization of XX fetuses
-girls with normal internal genitalia and ambiguous external genitalia

33

Rx antibiotics for UTI in pregnancy

-Nitrofurantoin
-Amox
-Amox-Clav
-Cephalexin

34

Contraindicated antibiotics for UTI in pregnancy

-Tetracyclines
-Fluoroquinolones
-TMP-SMX

35

Cervicofacial actinomycosis presentation

-mandibular region as slow-growing, nontender mass
-yellow granular pus
-gram stain: gram + branching rod

36

Tx of cervicofacial actinomycosis

1. penicillin x 12 weeks
2. clindamycin if allergic to PCN
3. surgical excision if not cured by abx

37

Age-related hearing loss = ?

-"presbycusis"
-bilateral, symmetric sensorineural hearing loss
-tinnitus may develop

38

Number needed to treat =

1/ARR

39

Complications of nephrotic syndrome

-hypercoagulability ==> PE, renal vein thrombosis
-protein malnutrition
-microcytic, hypochromic anemia
-increased infections
-vit D deficiency

40

Cause of LFTs in thousands

-meds
-acute viral hepatitis
-ischemia

41

LFTs in acute alcoholic hepatitis

rarely exceed 500

42

Nitrate MOA for reduced cardiac pain/demand

-systemic vasodilation ==> decreased cardiac preload ==> decreased LV walls stress and O2 demand