True or False
There are five types of wine.
There are three types of wine:
- Still Wines
- Sparkling Wines
- Fortified Wines
What is the abv for still wines?
The abv for still wines is between 8% - 15%
The majority are between 11.5% - 14% abv
ABV = Alcohol By Volume, and is expressed as a percentage
What are many still wines named after?
Many still wines are named after the region in which they were produced. These would often be from the classic wine-producing regions in Europe.
Other wines are named after the grape variety used to make them. These can be from Europe or most wine regions outside of Europe.
What is the 'fizz' in sparkling wines caused by?
The 'fizz' in sparkling wines is caused by carbon dioxide gas which is produced by fermentation, and is purposely trapped in the wine.
List three well known examples of sparkling.
What is the abv of fortified wine and why?
Fortified wines have a higher abv of 15%-22% because extra alcohol is added to the wines.
List two examples of fortified wines from around the world.
What makes up the style of wine?
The color, structural characteristics, aromas and flavors all make up the style of wine.
What influences the final color of a wine?
The color of a wine is influenced by the grape variety used, as well as the way the wine is made.
Rosé wines are made with black grapes
Rosé wines are made from black grapes.
The juice is left in contact with the skin for a short period of time before it is drained so that the juice is only lightly colored by the skins.
What are notable structural characteristics?
What causes sweetness?
Sweetness is caused by the presence of sugar in the wine.
How is a dry wine made?
To make a dry wine, the yeast must convert all of the sugar in the grape juice into alcohol.
What are the two key ways to make a wine with a medium level of sweetness?
Remove the yeast before all the sugar is converted into alcohol
- Add unfermented grape juice to a dry wine
The majority of wines are sweet.
The majority of wines are dry.
Most wines that have a medium level of sweetness are either white or rosé.
There are few truly sweet red wines, except for some dessert style wines.
What are the two key ways of making a sweet wine?
- Use grapes so high in sugar that the yeast stops fermenting before they eat all the sugar. (Examples may include Sauternes from France, as well as some Riesling styles from Germany)
- In the case of fortified wines, the yeast are killed by the addition of high-strength distilled alcohol before they can eat all the sugar. (Examples of sweet-fortified wines can include Port and some styles of Sherry)
Where does acidity in wine come from?
Acidity comes directly from the grape juice.
Acidity gives wine a refreshing characteristic.
How can you recognize acidity in wine?
Acidity makes your mouth water, and it helps balance out sweetness.
Tannin is a characteristic only of white wine.
Tannin is a characteristic of red wine and comes from the skin of the grapes.
What determines the level of tannin in wine?
Grape variety and how the wine is made
How can you pick out tannins in wine?
Tannins cause your mouth to feel dry, puckery and astringent.
What do full-bodied wines feel like in comparison to light-bodied wines?
Full-bodied wines feel viscous & mouth-filling.
Light-bodied wines feel more delicate.
Where can some aromas and flavors of wines come from?
Aromas and flavors of wines come from a variety of sources. Some come from the grapes while others develop during winemaking and maturation.
Two of the most common aromas and flavors of wines are fruits and oak.
Most wines will have some sort of aroma and flavor of fruit depending on the grape variety and ripeness of the grape.
When wine is fermented or matured in oak barrels, the barrels can contribute to the aromas and flavors of the wine.