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Flashcards in Vector transmitted viruses Deck (18):
1

List viruses transmitted by insects that are commonly seen in the US

Western equine encephalitis
Eastern equine encephalitis
St Louis encephalitis
Bunyaviruses ex La Crosse encephalitis
Venezuelan equine encephalitis
Colorado tick fever
West Nile virus

2

List three clinical syndromes associated with insect-transmitted viruses

encephalitis
hemorrhagic fever (dengue, yellow fever)
arhtritis/ arthralgia (chikenguny)

3

List four clinical syndromes associated with animal-transmitted viruses

encephalitis
uremic syndrome (hantavirus)
pulmonary syndrome (hantavirus)
hemorrhagic fever (ebola, lassa)

4

If the endemic host of a virus is humans, the virus can be maintained through an ____ cycle

urban

ex yellow fever, dengue

5

In the ____ cycle, humans are dead end/ tangential/ incidental hosts

Sylvan

6

Human to human transmission of these viruses is generally (common/ rare)

rare
West Nile Virus is the exception- transmitted through blood transfusions

7

List three ways vector-borne viruses can be maintained in nature

- hibernating small animals
- transovarial transmission in ticks/ mosquitoes
- asymptomatic animal hosts with chronic infection

8

What is the general pathogenesis of arboviruses?

Arboviruses are introduced directly into the blood by an infected arthropod. The virus
replicates in the reticuloendothelial system and vascular endothelium. A secondary viremia may then seed target organs.

9

In West Nile and other encephalitis viruses, _____ results in seeding of the CNS leading to direct damage to nervous tissue as well as host immune damage

secondary viremia

10

In _____, damage to the liver leads to loss of clotting factor production and bleeding

yellow fever

11

In hemorrhagic fever, there is both direct cell damage to the _________ and damage caused by host immune response

vascular endothelium

12

The presence of a non-neutralizing antibody leads to ______ as seen in dengue (infection of cells that would not normally be infected)

immune ehancement

13

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is caused by inhalation of _____ and targets the ____

rodent droppings
lungs- pulmonary edema

14

The ebola envelope ____ is toxic to vascular endothelial cells

glycoprotein

15

Rabies causes a distinct cytopathic effect called the ____ body, an eosinophilic inclusion body

negri

16

How are insect vector diseases normally diagnosed?

serology using acute and convalescent sera
can use culture but less common

17

How are animal vector diseases diagnosed

may need a reference lab ex CDC
usually only by serology

18

What treatments are available for vector borne viral disases

supportive care
NOT steroids
ventilatory support as needed
no effects with ribavirin, interferon in vivo
Rabies- give vaccine and Ig ASAP