Vertebrates 1 - History Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vertebrates 1 - History Deck (15)
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2

SPCA

Founded in 1866, in USA

3

AWA

Animal welfare act, 1966, in USA

4

Trends in animal use

Huge increase since WWII to 1970 (increased funding), then decreased to present (ethics, accurate results?)

5

3 R’s of Humane Animal Experimentation (Russel and Birch)

Replacement (cell culture/inverts over rats); Reduction (less animals with loss of data, 1000 or 100 - save money!); Refinement (change techniques, less pain/stress)

6

Animal research in Canada

No legislation direct for animals (fed. or prov.); some committees for ethics and researchers

7

Where are most animals used in Canada?

Mostly in research, very few (relatively) in testing and teaching

8

Levels of Anatomy and physiology

Molecular; organelle; cellular; tissue (most tissues are the same); organ; organ system; organism

9

Philosophers

Aristotle, Hippocrates, Plato; wrote about animals, how body works; just observed, no experiments

10

Herophilus

300BC. Father of anatomy; autopsies to compare humans and animals

11

Galen

around 1AD; Physician and philosopher, experimental physiology; live dissection

12

1500-1600

Age of autopsy. Da Vinci paintings, Vesalius Textbook

13

1600-1700

Descartes, Hooke; microscope, cell,

14

1700-1800

van Leeuwenhoekl, Galvani; comparative anatomy, electricity in physiology

15

1800-1900

Schwann, Schleider (cell theory); Darwin; Broca; Cajal (pathways in brains); Rontgen (Xrays)

16

1900-pres

Pavlov (Behaviour), Berger (human brain, ECG), Young (comparative anatomy), Hodgkin and Huxley (vision/brain), Hubel and Weisel, Axel and Buck (olfactory)